Shan Poem (ꩀ)

ေပꨵ ꨅ္ꨮယူꨲ  

ꨟဝ္းေတဳꨳꨡမ္ꨲ ꨀူဝ္သꨓ္ꨲ
လꨰတ္ꨲ မꨯꨳတꨤꨓ္ꨲ ꨟိူဝ္ေꨀဳꨳ
ꨟဝ္းေတဳꨳꨡမ္ꨲ ꨁꨤင္းꨟိူဝ္ꨵ
ꨀူမ္ꨲ လိꨓ္တူိဝ္ꨵ ေꨀဳꨳ
ꨟဝ္းꨡမ္ꨲ ꨡꨤꨓ္းꨀူဝ္
သင္သူꨀူမ္ꨳꨟူဝ္ယူꨲ ꨓ္ꨮးꨡူꨀ္း
သင္သူမူꨀ္းယူꨲ ꨓ္ꨮးꨟူဝ္ꨅ္ꨮ
ꨟဝ္းယူꨲ တဳꨲ ေသꨲ ေတꨵ


ꨓမ္ꨵ ꨀတ္းေသꨡုꨓ္ꨲ
ꨓမ္ꨵ ꨁုꨓ္ꨲ ေသသ္ꨮ
ꨬ  ပꨵ ꨅ္ꨮေသလꨤတ္ꨳꨬ  တꨵ ꨬ  တꨵ ယဝ္ꨵ ꨓဳꨳ ။


ꨟဝ္းꨟꨀ္ꨵ သူꨓꨯꨵ
ပꨰꨀ္ꨵ သမ္ꨵ ဝဳꨳ
ꨟဝ္းတꨤꨯꨀꨮဳꨲ ေသပꨰတ္ꨲ ပြꨀ္ꨳ
လြꨀ္ꨳꨀꨮဳꨲ ေသပꨰတ္ꨲ ꨁꨤပ္ꨳေꨀဳꨳ
ꨟဝ္းေတပ္ꨮꨵ မြင္းထꨰင္ꨳꨅꨤတ္ꨳꨓဳꨳယူꨲ ꨓဳꨳ။


သင္ပꨰꨓ္မꨯꨵ ေꨀဳꨳ
မꨯꨵ ꨓြꨀ္ꨳေꨀဳ
လꨰတ္ꨲ မꨯꨳ
ပꨯꨲ မီးေꨀဳꨵ မုင္းꨁဳး
ꨕူꨓ္မဳးပꨯꨲ မီးေꨀဳꨵ ꨀင္ꨳꨅြင္ꨳ
ꨕꨯးꨡမ္ꨲ မꨯꨳꨬ  လꨳ
ꨀုိတ္းဝꨯꨵ ပုꨓ္ꨳတဳꨲ
သူꨀူꨉ္းꨡိူဝ္ꨓြင္ꨵ ။


သင္ပꨱꨓ္ꨓမ္ꨵ ေꨀဳꨳ
ပꨱꨓ္ꨓမ္ꨵ ꨓ္ꨮးေမဳꨲ
ပꨓ္ꨟဝ္းငြꨀ္ꨳငြမ္ေငဳꨲ ေသတူꨉ္း
သင္ပꨱꨓ္မြꨀ္ꨲ ꨟြမ္ꨟူꨉ္းေꨀဳꨳ
ေတဳꨳပꨱꨓ္မြꨀ္ꨲ ပꨤꨯꨕူꨉ္း
ယူဝ္ပꨯꨲ ꨅ္ꨮꨳတဳꨲ ꨟဝ္းꨀြꨓ္ꨲ ယူဝ္ꨵ ေꨓဳꨳ။


HISTORY OF THE SHAN STATE from its origins to 1962 (Sai Aung Tun) 

About the Author

 Sai Aung Tun is above all an academic and a scholar of history, although he was involved in the political life of his country during the socialist regime and later became a member of the National Convention(1993) to shape the future constitution of Myanmar. A fervent nationalist all the Myanmar citizenry, he is also a devoted Shan Buddhist. Through his postings in Myanmar he made a acquaintance with many monks and religious persons, participated ceaselessly in the construction of numerous pagodas, and therefore has become a well-known pagoda-builder.

    Sai Aung Tun was born in 1932. He matriculated in Hsipaw (northern Shan State) and was appointed as tutor in the History Department of the University of Rangoon in 1957. Sent to the University of Denver (Colorado), he obtained an MA in International Relations. He then began a career as a government servant and, in 1961, he was promoted to head the History Department of Taunggyi College in the capital of Shan State. From 1964 to 1968 he was posted to the Department of History, Arts and Science of the University of Mandalay (Mandalay Division), and later transferred to head the History Department of Magwe College (Magwe Division). From 1970 to 1980 he assumed the post of principal of Myitkyina College (Kachin State) and then switched to a political career during the socialist regime. He was elected as a member of parliament for the constituency of Mogaung (Kachin State), where a large Shan community is located. From 1980 to 1985 he was recalled to the capital and appointed principal of the Institute of Foreign Language of the University of Yangon. In 1985 he was elected a State Council member in Hsipaw, he native town, and remained in his position until 1988.

    In 1992 Sai Aung Tun was appointed vice chairman of the Myanmar Historical Commission, where he joined the remaining members of the Myanmar academic community (Dr. Than Tun, U Tun Aung Chain, U Hla Thein, U Thet Tun [former ambassador to France], Daw Ohn Kyi, U Than Htut, U Thaw Kaung [former chief librarian, Universities Central Library], Dr Ohn Khine, Dr Khin Maung Nyunt, and Daw Ni Ni Myint). Presently professor emeritus of international relations, he conducts PhD and MA classes at the University of Mandalay-Yangon and continues to receive and help many visiting foreign scholars.

    In the years preceding the Golden Jubilee of the Historical Commission (1955 - 2005), Professor Sai Aung Tun was instrumental in preparing and realizing the publication of more than forty volumes detailing the mostly unknown works of his colleagues on the commission. This achievement, coupled with the yearly organization of international conferences held in Yangon, effectively put an end to several decades’ isolation of Myanmar scholars and opened up a new era for developing a relationship with the outside world.
Guy Lubeigt
Docteur d’Etat
Senior Research Officer (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
Permanent Representative in Myanmar and Thailand


It had long been my intention to write a history of Shan State from the earliest times to the 1960s. But my aim went unrealized because financial limitations did not allow me to carry out the research necessary for the project. I looked around for sources of support that might enable to conduct my research. On my way to Bangkok,  I met Dr. Chatthip Nartsupha from the Chulalongkorn University and Professor Renoo Wichasin from Chiang Mai University, both of whom had keen interest in Shan Studies. Dr. Chathip Nartsupha invited me to his house, where we discussed my research project in his library. He had a big collection of materials on the Shan and he allowed me to make use of it for my research project. The both suggested that I apply for a research grant from the Toyota Foundation. One of my very close friends, Dr. Thaw Kaung, who is a member of the Myanmar Historical Commission, also advised me to apply for a research grant from the foundation. I would like to thank these three scholars for their encouragement and the valuable suggestions they gave me.

    With a letter of recommendation from U Tun Aung Chain, secretary of the Myanmar Historical Commission, I sent my application to Mr. Norio Kanie, the managing director of the Toyota Foundation.
   The research grant was promptly given, and for this I would like to express my deepest thanks to Mr. Norio Kanie and also to the two program officers, Mr. Alan Feinstein and Mrs. Yumiko Himemoto-Hiraishi, who came to Yangon and explained to me in detail how I should make use of the research grant and the rules and procedures that I should observe.
    Having obtained the research grant, I wasted no time and immediately began my research. I went through the collections of the Universities Central Library, the Yangon University Library, the Library of the Universities Historical Research Center and the National Archives Department, gathering the information and materials that were and I would like to thank them for all their help.

    I also made a research trip to Shan State, visiting Taunggyi, Lashio, Muse, Nam Hkam, Mong Mit, Keng Tung, and other places of historical importance, interviewing local scholars, collecting local chronicles, copying historically important manuscripts, and taking photographs of antique items, old monasteries, old haw (residences of Shan chief), and the products of cottage industries. For the information and materials I acquired I owe a debt of gratitude to all the local scholars and friends, especially to Dr. Sai Mawk Hkam (Lashio), Sao Sukhamin (Tang Yan), Long Karn Hkam (Lashio), Sai Pan Seng (Mandalay), Sai Myat Aung (Mandalay), Sai Hkun Noom (Muse), Sai Kyaw Naing (Muse), Nang Sandar (Muse), Sai Hsar Aye (Nam Hkam), Sai Yee Pu (Nam Hkam), Sai Than Nyan (Nam Hkam), Sai Yee (Keng Tung), Long Tang Kae (Taunggyi), Sao Noi Mao Hkun (Putao), Long Hong Hkam (Keng Tung), Long Tip (Kneg Tung), Sai Sam Tip (Keng Tung), Sai Aik Pao (Yangon), Long Heng Shwe Aye (Yangon), Dr. Sai Sang Aik (Yangon), Hkun Wun Tip (Yangon), Sai Thet Win (Yangon), Nang Vo Seng (Yangon) and all the executive members of the Shan Cultural and Literary Committees of Yangon, Mandalay, Taunggyi, Lashio, Muse, Nam Hkam, Mong Mit, and Keng Tung, who rendered me every possible help in my research.

    I aslo visited Taunggyi Museum and obtained many valuable manuscripts and received photographs of historicallly important museum pieces. For the help I received, my thanks go the museum curator, Nang Lao Ngun, and the members of her staff.

    The grant also allowed me to go abroad for the collection of material relevant to my research. There are a lot of documents, reports, manuscripts, and personal letters bout the British Administration in the Shan States at the India Office Records in the British Library in London and in the Scott Collection of the Cambridge University Library. While in London, my research would not have been possible without the help of Reverend Sao Dhammasami and Reverend Sao Jotika, who personally took me to the British Library, and Sai Pang, Anita Jain, Saye Khaeo Pang, Tzai Seng Pang, Sai Mong, Sai Onn Mong, Dr. Kyaw Thinn and Sao Phong Kaeo (Owei), Dr. Richard Tun Nyunt, Dr. Ye Lin Hock and Shwe Phyu Thaw, U Maung Maung and Daw Than Than Myint and Sao Noon Oo, who provided me with accommodation and transport to the libraries  and museums around London. I would like to thank all of them for their very kind help. I would also like to thank Daw San San May and other staff members of both the British Library and the Library of Cambridge University for helping me to get all essential materials for my research.

    I also owe a great debt of gratitude to Sao Hso Hom, my old classmate, who lives in Australia, who was kind enough to help me organize my research. He also read through my research paper, especially the last four chapters which dealt with the proposal for revising the constitution in whose discussion he participated more than forty years ago.

    I would like also to thank Dr. and Mrs. David Rachael Hall of Cambridge, who read through parts of my research work and gave me good advice about the format of my research, and also to Dr. Justin Meiland of Mahidol University, Bangkok, for his valuable advice.

    Another scholar who helped me organize my research project was Dr. J.N. Phukan from Guwahati (Assam). I also thank him for his very kind help.

    I should not forget to mention U Tun Aung Chain, secretary of the Myanmar Historical Commission, who not only wrote a letter of recommendation when I applied for a research grant but also patiently and thoroughly went through my project paper from beginning to end, correcting the errors I had committed in writing the paper. I thank him from the bottom of my heart.

    Last, but not least, I would like to express my sincere thanks of my research assistants U San Win, Daw Mie Mie Lwin, Daw Hmwe (Nang Hom), Daw Lya Lya Win, my computer programmer Dr. Sai Sang Pe (Mong Yai), and Dr. Guy Lubeigt and his staff for preparing all the necessary maps. They gave me every possiblile help in accomplishing my research project. Remaining mistakes and shortcomings are my sole responsibility.

    Finally, I would like to thank Ms. Susan Offner for her editorial work and Ms. Trasvin Jittidecharak for her help in publishing this book.

November 2004.


A history of the Shan State from the earliest times to the 1960s is here presented to inform the general reader about the migration of the Shan ethnic people from their old settlements around the Hwangho-Yangtze region to Southeast Asia until they reach Myanmar. It is also believed that the Shan people entered Myanmar beginning in the first Century A.D. They generally occupied most of the areas in the northwest, north, northeast, and east of Myanmar proper. But the area of their greatest concentration was in the eastern part, called the Shan State. From their base in the Shan Plateau, the Shan tried to invade the plain region of Myanmar several times and to control the heartland of the country. They were able to do so only after the fall of Bagan. They  dominated the political stage of Myanmar for a few centuries and founded three historically important capitals in the heartland of Myanmar at Pinya, Sagaing, and Inwa(Ava). After the decay of the Shan dynasties Myanmar was unified under a most able king, Bayinnaung. From there Shan history merges with that of Myanmar.

    I should have written a complete history of the Shan State in all its cultral, economic, social, and political aspects. But owing to financial constraints and a lack of time to do wider and deeper research, I could write only a short history under a grant from the Toyota Foundation with a time limit set at one year.

    The migration of the Shan people to Southeast Asia and finally to Myanmar was a lengthy and strenuous process. In their long march to Myanmar the Shan stopped many times on the way to establish a number of dynastic kingdoms whenever and wherever they could find good valleys. The size of their kingdoms depended mostly on the size of the valley. Most of their kingdoms were small with the exception of Nan-chao and Mong Mao Long, which developed into empires with many notable political, social, and economic achievements. The Shan brought with them their culture of wet-rice cultivation wherever they migrated and settled for food security, which was considered an important element of national power in the old days.

    It took three thousand years at least for the Shan to march down to Myanmar from their original home in China. They were always on the move due to the restlessness of their character. When they did not quarrel and fight among themselves, they would move gently and quietly along the rivers until they found a new valley with fertile land, tender grass, and fresh water to establish their traditional baan and mong or kingdoms. When they fought among themselves, or encountered new forceful immigrants, or neighbors, their migration became more forced and violent, as in when the floodgate open during the invasion of the Mongol military forces led by Kublai Khan in A.D 1287.

    Bamar and Shan became united whenever they encountered foreign invasions or wars. In the long course of its history, Myanmar intermittently had wars with its neighbors, China, Thailand, Assam, and Manipur, and also with Great Britain. There were glorious periods in its history when Myanmar fought foreign wars during the reigns of King Anawratha, Bayinnaung, and Alaung Paya. The Shan contingents gallantly fought together with Bamar to win against the foreign foes.

    In the three wars with the British, the Shan sacrified thousands of lives in guarding Myanmar sovereignty. Myanmar fell into the hands of the British in 1885, and both Shan and Bamar became colonial subjects of the British for nearly a hundred years. During the British rule in Myanmar, the Shan states were separated from Myanmar proper in accordance with the British policy of “divide and rule.”

    At first, the British had no idea how the Shan states should be ruled. Finally they readopted the method of the Myanmar kings to rule the Shan states through their own chiefs. They held out the olive branch to all Shan chief, persuading them to submit and vow allegiance to British power. Many Shan chiefs did, and sanad, or appointment orders, were issued to the Shan chiefs who were required to rule their states in accordance with the terms stated in the sanad. By those terms, many traditional and hereditary privileges and rights were curbed and the positions of the Shan chiefs were no better off than in the time of the Myanmar kings. This created dissatisfaction among the Shan chiefs. They were under the tight control of the Birtish commissioner and governor. In 1922 the British introduced reform, and all the Shan states were placed under the instruction of the Federated Shan States. A council was created, having the British commissioner as its chairman and the British resident as its secretary. The Shan chiefs were members of the Federal Council but their roles were merely advisory. They had no legislative and executive powers at all. The Shan chiefs presented memorandum after memorandum stating their grievances and dissatisfactions and appealed for reform and an increase of most of their privileges and rights in administering their states. The British turned a deaf ear to their appeals and were slow to introduce reasonable reforms. Political agitation took place in 1930 when a roundtable conference was held in London to discuss the question of the separation of Myanmar from India. The Shan chiefs sent another memorandum and requested permission to participate in the roundtable conference and ascertain the position of the Shan States after the separation of Myanmar from India. But they received no favorable response form the British government. The Shan States were not only separated from Myanmar proper but placed under the Frontier Area Administration created by the British authority.

    The second World War broke out the Japanese invaded Myanmar. Then Shan States came under the Japanese military administration and were also separated from Myanmar proper. Moreover, two prominent Shan States, Keng Tung and Mong Pan, were given to the Thai government by the Japanese military authority as royal gifts without the knowledge or agreement of the Shan people.

    In 1945 the world war came to an end. The Japanese withdrew from Myanmar and the British reoccupied it. The Shan States were again placed under British rule. But a political awakening took place in Myanmar proper as well as in the Shan States. The people from Myanmar proper began their political campaign for independence. What happened then in the Shan States? In 1946 the First Political Conference was held in Pang Long, organized by the Shan chiefs. Representatives of the hill peoples and representatives of Myanmar proper including the governor and Frontier Service personnel were invited. The question was raised: “Politically, where do we go from here? The representatives from the hills and from Myanmar proper came to realize that the time had come for them to forge political unity and demand independence. Leaders from Myanmar proper and the hills discussed their common political causes and objectives and all came to agree on a demand  for independence. A preliminary agreement was obtained and all agreed to hold a larger and more dynamic political conference at the same place in 1947. According to schedule, the Second Pang Long Conference took  place in February 1947. The Myanmar delegation, led by Bogyoke Aung San, and all the representatives of hill peoples arrived. Political discussions were held continuously until a consensus was reached to demand independence from the British government. Under the signed historic Pang Long agreement all pledged to unite and to demand complete independence.

    Independence was given on January 4, 1948. A tragic incident took place on July 19, 1947. Bogyoke Aung San and his comrades including the Shan leaders Sao Sam Tun were assassinated.

    A parliamentary government was adopted after independence together with a quasi-federal state. After a decade of trial, it became apparent that the clauses and articles provided in the constitution did not meet the needs of the nationalities. They began to see the omissions and the loopholes and the need for amendment and reform. It was the Shan leaders and the people of Shan states who were the first to point out the weakness of the constitution. They were joined by other nationalities and all agreed to reform the constitution. The Shan produced a document called “A Proposal for the Amendment of the Constitution.” A national seminar was held in Yangon in a broadcasting station. Before the discussions were finished a coup d’ètat took place and the country was left without a constitution. That is a short history of the Shan States from the earliest times to 1962. The pages that follow flesh out the background, circumstances, decisions, and events presented in this brief overview.

AFPFL            Anti-Fascist People’s Freedom League
KMT            Kuomintang
KNDO            Karen National Defence Organization
NUF            National United Front
Pa-Ah-Ma-Sa        Pa-O National Association
Pa-Ah-Ma-Pha    Pa-O National Organization
PVO            People’s Volunteer Organization
SCOUHP        Supreme Council of United Hill People
SEATO        Southeast Asia Treaty Organization
SSHPO        Shan State Hill People’s Organization
SSPFL            Shan State People’s Freedom League
SSPO            Shan State People’s Organization
USSPO        Union of the Shan State People’s Organization
Ya-Pa-La-Pha        Shan State People’s Liberation Party

The Shan in Myanmar

One unique feature about the Union of Myanmar is that, according to the 1931 census, more than one hundred national races had been living together as members of the same family since time immemorial, sharing all sorts of joy and woe in the long course of their history. In the early parts of their history of ups and downs, there were times when they fought each other like foes and there were also times when they could establish cordial and harmonious relations to become kinfolk and friends. Sometimes they were subject to each other, but most of the time they became good partners working and helping each other for the common goals of achieving sociopolitical and economic development, defending national territorial integrity, organizing national consolidation, maintaining national sovereignty, and striving for the assurance to have equal standing with other members of the world community. Each of these national ethnic groups has greatly and substantially contributed something to the development of this country according to the best of its ability, and each has also hoped to enjoy the fruit of its contribution according to its need.
    Now, of the many national ethnic groups living in this multinational Union of Myanmar, the Shan are the largest, occupying different parts of the country, especially the eastern plateau called Shan State. More than that, the Shan people have a history and cultural tradition of their own and a developed literature and religion, Buddhism.
    In fact, the Shan have played many prominent roles in the task of organizing Myanmar to become a sovereign nation like today. The Shan helped found the Upper Myanmar capitals like Pinya, Sagaing, and Inwa (Ava) and many baan, mong, and keng in the northwestern, northern, northeastern, eastern, and southeastern parts of the country, taking responsibility for defending the Myanmar border areas from being encroached and infringed on by alien powers. At that time, there were no national or standing armed forces like today. The task of defending these areas lay totally in the hands of the Shan levies.
    When the Myanmar kings established their Bagan Empire and began their territorial expansion, it was the Shan who provided contingents of fighting soliders. In the internal work of construction the participation of the Shan as good donors was recorded in the stone inscriptions of Bangan, especially in the promotion of religion and its activities.
    In the long course of history, there are many historical evidences of the Shan closely and actively cooperating with the Myanmar kings in their wars with neighboring countries and the victories achieved over foreign foes. There is historical proof of the roles that the Shan contingents and  their chiefs played in the Myanmar conquest of Chiang Mai, Ayuthaya, Assam, and sometimes in war with China.
    In critical situations the Shan never hesitated to help, especially when there were foreign wars. In the First, Second, and Third Anglo-Myanmar Wars, the Shan provided the best fighting soliders, including Shan women, under the command of their feudal cheifs. Many Shan sacrificed their lives in these three wars and many others in the past. The Shan never betrayed the sovereign in the times of monarchy. The Shan patriots even hatched a plan to rescue King Thibaw on his way from the palace to the Gaw Wein jetty in Mandalay.
    U Aung Myat, the saohpa of Waing Hso (Wuntho), became much enraged on hearing of King Thibaw’s capture by the British. He gathered forces around him and, with the Shan patriotic forces, rose against the British despite a warning from Kinwunmingyi not to do so. As a lone fighter, he continued to fight on until he was defeated owing to the superior quality of British arms. But he never surrendered to British. He took refuge in Mongna-Sanda, a Tai Nue Shan state of the border area on the Chinese side. He came back to Myanmar at the invitation of the government only after independence was achieved.
    Again, the role of the Shan people came to the fore during the Myanmar struggle for independence. Bogyoke Aung San led the Myanmar delegation to London without Shan representatives to negotiate for independence with the British prime minister, Clement Attlee. There, the question arose regarding the participation of the frontier people of the hill regions in the political struggle for independence. Independence without the hill regions and their people would not be compelete or meaningful. At this juncture, the Shan leaders and representatives of other nationalities organized a political conference at the strategic town of Pang Long in the  Central Shan States in February 1947. There, heated, thorough, and serious political discussions took place and finally a political breakthrough was achieved. All representatives attending the conference unanimously voted to join hands with the Myanmar leaders in their struggle for independence. That historic agreement signed between the leaders of the plain region and leaders of the hill region greatly affected the negotiations in London, and independence was granted to Myanmar on January 4, 1948. More than that, the Pang Long Agreement was a historic landmark in many ways. First, it was the first national unity achieved between the leaders of Myanmar proper and the frontier hill region. Second, it was the historic creation of the First Modern Union of Myanmar on February 12, 1947. Third, it freed Myanmar as a whole from the colonial bondage that had been imposed upon the people for nearly a century. Fourth, it led to the restoration of national sovereignty to the new nation, the Union of Myanmar. Finally, it helped Myanmar to become a sovereign nation on equal footing with other members of the United Nations Organization.
    Even from the cultural and religious points of view, the Shan and Myanmar are closely akin to each other. The major link in the cultural and religious kinship of these races in Buddhism of the Theravada School. The two peoples, in fact, share not only a common religious faith but a large body of customs, ceremonies, folk beliefs, and values related to Buddhism. For centuries the Shan and the Bamar were socially economically, and  religiously mixed, and they mingled and intermarried. The Shan speak the Myanmar language much more fluently than the Myanmar speak Shan. All national tasks or responsibilities laid down by the Union Government were equally shared and faithfully carried out by all the national ethnic peoples of the country including the Shan.

    The Shan belong to the Mongoloid stock of the Tai ethnic group who are spread over southwestern China, Hainan, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia(Kampuchea), Myanmar, and northeastern India in Assam. They are known by a variety of names depending upon the color of their costumes, teeth, and tattoo. Sometimes they are called to accord with the names of the streams, the rivers, the lakes, the forests, the plains, the hills, the mountains, and the valleys where they live. On the basis of the color of the dress, there are names like Tai Lam(Dam, black), Tai Kau(white), Tai Leng(Deng, red), Tai Lai(striped waistband). Those who live by the Red River are called Tai Leng(Deng) and by the Black River Tai Lam(Dam), etc. J.G.Scott in his book Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan States gives a list of Tai names1 as does Professor Namal Chandra Gogoi in his article “Tai, Htai and Dai: Origin, Evolution and Dissemination of Tai Culture in China and Southeast Asia with Special Reference to the Ahoms of Assam”2
    Regarding the original home of the Tai people, historians and ethnologists have been making intensive investigations, but the result is still far from being satisfactory. However, the scholar Max Muller ventures to say:
    the original seat of the Tai or Siamese branch of the Indo-Chinese peoples, called Shan by the Burmese, was in Central Asia
    and  it was from that area that these people were the first to migrate towards the south  and settle along the rivers Mekong,
    Irrawaddy and Brahmaputta.3

    Dr. B.Laufer, Curator of Anthropology, Field Columbian Museum, Chicago, remarks:
    the early home of the peoples of eastern Asia was in the upper reaches of the Hoangho or Yellow River of China,... from
    this centre the Tibetans migrated westward; the early tribes of Indo-China, southward; and the Chinese southeastward.4

    On the course of the Tai migration to the south, Professor P. Gogoi in his article, “The Tai and the Tai Kingdom,” written in 1969, has this to say:
    The history of their migration is a history of long centuries of struggle which they had to carry on both against the Chinese
    imperial pressure from the north  and against the powerful neighbours  in the south,  resulting in the succession of glorious
    periods of their supremacy in China, Burma, Laos, Assam down to the modern times.5

    Later, through intensive field researches carried out by Chinese and foreign scholars, the general consensus is that the real home of the Tai people or the region where they developed as a well-known or distinctive race had been in southwestern China and that, in the course of time, due to the pressure of the new immigrants from the north, they continued to move along the big rivers and their tributaries that flowed from or through China to Assam, Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, and Cambodia, like Brahmaputta, Chindwin, Ayeyarwady(Irrawaddy), Shweli(Nam Mao), Than Lwin(Salween, Nam Kone), Menam, Mekong, Black River (Nam-me-lam/dam), and Red River(Nam-me-leng/deng).


Generally, the Tai ethnic people were believed to have their early settlements around the fertile basins of the Huanghe or Yellow River and the Yangtze River. But the actual location of their original homeland is very difficult to ascertain. For that, further research and investigations will have to be undertaken. Regarding the story of the spread of the Tai into southwestern China, information could be available from the study of the Chinese historical annals, the dynastic records, and the chronicles of the periods concerned.

    The Tai ethnic people are believed to have migrated into China even before the Chinese themselves. That was why they were called the elder brothers of the Chinese. The history of the pre-Chinese period revealed the existence of the Tai state of Ngu or Wu. It was believed that Ngu or Wu State was located around the mouth of the Yangtze River. The area controlled by this state consisted of the modern province of Kiangsu and its adjacent region. The Tai ethnic people living in China in the early days were called white barbarians and black barbarians, and sometimes they were known as people with golden teeth as described by Fan Ch’o, a Chinese official of the Tang dynasty. In his book Man-shu, he stated:

    The “black-teeth” barbarians, the “gold-teeth” barbarians, “silver-teeth” barbarians, “tattooed-leg” barbarians... The “black
    -teeth” barbarians use lacquer to lacquer their teeth... The “gold-teeth”barbarians use gold carved plates to cover their teeth,
    and the “silver-teeth” barbarians use silver to cover their teeth. When they have business to go out to interview people, they
    use these as and adornment... The “tattooed-leg” barbarians engrave the skin above the ankle and below the shin, all round
    with lines and patterns...

    From the beginning of their history, the Tai people were good agriculturists. They were well known for wet-rice cultivation, which they took with them to every place they moved to and settled in. As a means of communication, the Tai language was widely used and spoken. Many Tai words were incorporated into the Chinese language in later days. According to the Statistical Account of the Province of Kwanghsi (Guangxi), out of nineteen words, twelve are Tai. In A.D. 1172 a Chinese resident of Kwanghsi gave a short list of nine words of their language and almost all were found to be Tai.6 Obviously the Tai spoken language was once quite influential and spoken by ethnic groups around the fertile region of the Yellow River.

    In their long march to the south, southewest, and west, the Tai never failed to establish their kingdoms and empires whenever the situation favored it. The Chinese historical annals revealed the emergence of the Tai Confederated States, known as Ts’u. Where was Ts’u then? Ascending the Yangtze River to the present province of Hupeh, that would be the seat of the Ts’u state. According to the sinologist Mr.Parker, Ts’u was the largest of the Tai Confederated States of ancient times, covering the vast area of land northward between the Yangtze and Yellow rivers, including the old Tai state of Ngu or Wu and all the regions southward to the sea.7

    Regarding the widely spread Tai ethnic race, the scholar S. Hallett remarked that the Tai not only stretched far away eastward, perhaps to the Chinese Sea, but also formed one of the chief ingredients of the Chinese race.8

    Another pre-Chinese period of the Tai state was called Pang or Pan-hu and it was predominant in central China, south of the Yellow River. The Pang people occupied the area of the northeast of Sichuan and the west of the Honan. The generic name of the people of Pang was Ngao or Yao or Great. They should be considered the oldest stock of the Tai ethnic people. Their language and words spoken at that time were recorded in the annals of the eastern Han. It is also found that out of eight words on the list, five are Tai. Pang State had been in existence since the twentieth century B.C. The Pang people were not subdued by the Chinese until the end of the eleventh century A.D and they did not acknowledge the supremacy of the Chinese emperor. The chief of Pang State was once recognized as king of Siang-yang (Hupeh) and governor of King-chou. His realm contained eighty thousand villages. 9 Pang State was contemporary with the rival of the Chinese Han dynasty. The two states established friendly relations and gave mutual help to each other. The political existence of the Great Pang State was, however, destroyed by Shang Wu-ting in 1231 B.C. After a lapse of 767 years, the old Pang state was revived with the help of the Tchou people. The second seat of Pang State lay between the Yuen and the Wu rivers, west and southwest of Tung-ting Lake, a mountainous region.10

    Another group of the Tai ethnic people settled at the headwater of the Yangtze River and occupied the region at the intersection of Honan, Hupeh, and Nang-hwui provinces. From there they extended their territory westward in the Kiu Lung (green wilderness of thich wooded area) range of the mountains, forming the boundary between Shansi and Sichuan provinces.11 Professor M. Terrien de Lacouperie assumed the area to be the original cradle of the Tai race.

    Moving to western Sichuan in about 2000 B.C, another Tai ethnic group set up a new kingdom known in history as Ta Mung or Great Mung. This group was recognized as the progenitors of the Tai ethnic group of Tongking of Vietnam.

    The Tai ethnic people were always on the move and they never tried of finding a new place and establishing a new baan, mong, and keng. They were required to do that to maintain their identity, their cultural heritage and wet-rice cultivation culture, and their values and right to exist as a civilized people like other nationalities.

    A twin city-state established by another branch of the Tai ethnic group was called Pa and Lung. These two states played an important part in the subsequent history of the Tai race. The seats of both Pa and Lung states were in western Sichuan. The Pa had relations even with Ts’u as early as 600 B.C. There is evidence of Pa princesses married to Ts’u kings. The Chinese annals also mention how the ruler of Hia Ki sent his minister, Mang Tu, to Pa State to establish friendship between the two kingdoms in 1971 B.C. The Chinese annals also state that near the Pa was the Lung. The Chinese called the Lung people Lung-jen and the Pa people Pá-yi. The Pa people lived under a government of their own.12 The dynastic histories of the Hou-han-shu (the later Han dynasty, A.D 25-250) and the Tsin Shu (the history of the Tsin dynasty, A.D 265-420) give a long description of the Pa kingdom and the prominent role it played during the dynastic periods of the time. Wu-hsiang was described as a hero king who helped to found the State of Pa in eastern Sichuan.

The Pa people spread to Hupeh (Hubei) and Hunan and then moved down to the Yangtze River and then to the Chia-ling and Ch’u rivers. A branch of the Pa people was known as Tsung. They also established a kingdom called Tsung.13 They settled in the Hunan-Guizhou border region. During the Han dynasty, the native people who lived along the Yu River of the Lang-chung were Tsung people.14 The Hua-yang-kuo-chih also explains that T’ang Chu was an old Tsung kingdom. In Sichuan there was a place called Ch’u where settlements of Tsung people could be found. Another stocck of Tai ethnic people who inhabited the regions in western Hunan, southern Kuei-chow (Guizhou), and eastern Yunnan were called Chung or Chung-chia and those in western Kwanghsi (Guangxi) were called Chuang. They all spoke the Tai language with variant dialects. During the Chou dynasty (1122 B.C to 255 B.C) Pa State was on equal footing with other feudal states of China, like Ch’in to the north, and Ch’u and Teng to the east.15 These states sometimes fought each other and sometimes established cordial relationships.

    Shuh was another Tai state in western Sichuan. The limits of the Shuh kingdom, according Ch’ang Chu, the author of the Hua-yang-kuo-chih, were from the Pao-hsieh route on the north to Nanchung on the south. The Pao-hsieh route was valley in Shensi province. In the modern period, this route linked up with Shensi and Sichuan provinces. Nanchung was a vast province, including southern Sichuan, western Guizhou, and most parts of Yunan. The king of Shuh at that time was called “Wang Ti.”16

    The Hua-yang-kuo-chih also said that the states of Shuh and Pa were contemporary and rivalrous. Sometimes they were at war with each other.17 The Shuh king appointed his brother to assist in his administration and that post was called “Chia-meng.”18 The translation of Chia-meng could be Kyem-mong used in the later period by Tai chiefs.19 In 316 B.C, Shuh and Pa were conquered and annexed by Ch’in.20

    The Tai in Sichuan during the Han dynasty (206 B.C - A.D 220) were known as Pan-hsun. The Pan-hsun people set up their numerous settlements along the Yu River during the third century B.C. They were good cultivators as well as courageous fighters. The Han kings, whenever they had trouble with neighboring states and were unable to defeat them, enlisted the help of the Pan-hsun people to fight for them. The Han king called them “Marvelous Troops” and conferred titles on them and very often exempted them from taxation as a reward for their victories over the enemies.21 They remained loyal subjects of the Han emperor.

    For many centuries the Tai ethnic people were the dominant race over a wide strip of land on the left side of the Yangtze from Sichaun to the sea. But they were always followed by the long stretching arm of the Chinese race. From southwestern China, the Tai ethnic group known to the Chinese as Pai-i made another move to enter the remote province of the western frontier, Yunnan. These Pai-i people referred to themselves as Ai Lao or Ngai Lao.


    The Tai ethnic groups, in the long march to southern and southwestern China, were able to revive and reestablish their kingdoms and dynasties intermittently in various localities. Some of these were shortlived; other lasted for centuries. The history of this period showed that the Tai people were unable to unite their petty feudal kingdoms into a large and powerful state until the emergence of Nan-chao in the seventh century.

    In A.D 650 the Ai Lao rulers united and organized six Chao states into one powerful confederated state named Nan-chao. The six Chao states that were thus united were:

1.    Mung-Hi-Chao
2.    Che-Chai-Chao
3.    Chien-Lang-Chao
4.    Shi-Lang-Chao
5.    Teng-Shan-Chao
6.    Mung-She-Chao22
    Nan-chao State was the creation of the Ai Lao (Ngai Lao) branch of Tai people. They were a tough and vigorous Tai group, having great ability and organizational skills, through which they managed to organize mobile armed forces composed of the ethnic nationalities living within Nan-chao, and to create an effective administrative machinery to control Nan-chao. That the Ai Lao created Nan-chao can be gleaned from the Chinese history Chin T’ang Shu, which states:

    The Nan-chao barbarians were originally a sort of Wu Man (Black barbarian) tribe. Their surname is Meng. These barbarians call their kings Chao. They claim to be descendants of the Ngai Lao (Ai Lao). For generations they dwelt in Meng-She-Chou and were chieftians there. It is east of old  Yang-Ch’ang  of  the Han dynasty and west of Yao-Chou. Formerly their chiefs were six: hence their names Lu-Chao...23

    As regards the location and extent of Nan-chao State, the Chinese history Hsin T’ang Shu described it thus:

    Nan-chao  is  called  Hao-to,  Lung-wai (Dragon’s Tai), Chu-mieh, and Yang-Chien Mang-She Chao is to the south of the other, hence the name Nan-chao. It lies between Yung-Ch’and and Yao-Chu, south of the Iron Bridge. On the east it adjoins the Ts’uan; on the southeast it is connected with Chao-Chih (Tonkin);  on the west with Mo-ch’ieh-t’o (Magadha);  on the northwest it joins T’u-fan (Tibet): on the south it joins Nu-wang (probably Sip-Song-Pan-Na); on the northeast it connects with Ch’ien-wu. The king’s capital is Yang-Chu-Mieh city (Ta-li-fu). Another capital is Shan Shan-fu (Yunan-sen).24

    If the accounts in the Chin T’ang Shu and Hsin T’ang Shu are considered authentic, then we are provided with a very good estimate of the size and power of Nan-chao. To administers such an extensive empire effectively, the Nan-chao rulers introduced an elaborate governmental organization which included:

    • entrusting ministers with the power to decide matters of state
    • appointing governors, army officers in charge of horses, cows and the collection of the taxes; officers
      for the management of secret businesses; officers in charge of the palaces...
    • parceling out lands to the officials according to their ranks, to village communities, and to the farmers
    • conscripting all able-bodied men into military service. The army was divided into four departments,
      each having its own flag.  The soldiers were supplied with helmets  and  with  shields  of copper and           rhinoceros hide, with coats and trousers of leather. A leader was appointed over each one hundred men
      an officer over each one thousand, and a commander in chief over four armies.

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    ရွမ္းအမ်ဳိးသားမ်ား၏ရုိးသားမႈ၊ ေရာင့္ရဲမႈ၊ ေအးခ်မ္းမႈ၊ သည္းခံတတ္မႈစသည့္အတုယူဖြယ္ေကာင္း ေသာ စိတ္ေနစိတ္ထားမ်ားႏွင့္ပတ္သက္၍ "သည္းခံလွ်င္ ေရႊတုံးႀကီးျဖစ္မည္"ဟူေသာ စကားပုံတစ္တစ္ရပ္ ကိုလည္း ရုိးရာပုံျပင္ႏွင့္ဆက္စပ္လ်က္ ရွိသည္ကို ေတြ႔ရပါသည္။
          ယင္းစကားပုံကို ရွမ္းျပည္တစ္၀န္းလုံး ေျပာဆုိသုံးႏႈန္းလ်က္ရွိၾကေသာ္လည္း ကခ်င္ျပည္နယ္ ေျမာက္ဖ်ား ခႏၱီးလုံေျမျပန္႔ေဒသမွ ခႏၱီးရွမ္းမ်ား၏"တုိင္းခမ္းတီး"ရွမ္းပုံျပင္မ်ားတြင္ ေတြ႔ရပါသည္။
          ပုံျပင္အမည္မွာ "ဆပ္ကန္႔ျပင္တုန္ငင္း၊ ေဆာင္းကန္႔ပ်င္တ်န္ခမ္း"(ဆယ္ခါသည္းခံ ေငြတုံးျဖစ္၊ အခါ ၂၀ သည္းခံ ေရႊတုံးျဖစ္)ျဖစ္ပါသည္။ ပုံျပင္ကို မူရင္းအတုိင္း ကူးယူထည့္သြင္းလုိက္ပါသည္။
          ပုံျပင္မွာ။         ။ေရွးအခါက ရြာတစ္ရြာတြင္ ဆင္းရဲႏြမ္းပါးတဲ့လင္မယားႏွစ္ေယာက္ရွိၾကတယ္။ လင္မယားႏွစ္ဦးလုံးဟာ သစၥာရွိၾက၊ က်င့္၀တ္သိကၡာသီလနဲ႔ျပည့္စုံၾကလုိ႔ ဘယ္ေလာက္ပဲ ဆင္းရဲႏြမ္းပါးေပ မယ့္ က်င့္၀တ္သီလကို ေဖာက္ျပန္ခၽြတ္ေခ်ာ္ျခင္း မရွိၾကဘူး။
          လင္ေယာက်္ားျဖစ္သူမွာလဲ အလြန္သည္းခံတတ္တဲ့အေလ့ ရွိတယ္။ သူတုိ႔လင္မယားရဲ႕အေၾကာင္း ကုိသိတဲ့ သူတုိ႔ရဲ႕အိမ္ေစာင့္နတ္ဟာ ရြာေစာင့္နတ္ကတစ္ဆင့္ နယ္ေစာင့္နတ္ႀကီးအထိ အစီရင္ခံထားတာ ေၾကာင့္ မေကာင္းသူကိုပယ္၊ ေကာင္းသူကို ကယ္ရမယ့္၀တၱရားရွိတဲ့နယ္ေစာင့္နတ္ႀကီးဟာလဲ အဲဒီလင္မ ယားရဲ႕သတင္း မွန္ မမွန္ကို ကိုယ္တုိင္ကိုယ္က် သိရွိဖုိ႔ တစ္ေန႔မွာ ခင္ပြင္းလင္မရွိခုိက္ ဇနီးသည္သာ ထုိရြာ မွာ ရွိေနစဥ္ နတ္မင္းဟာ ရုပ္ရည္သန္႔ျပန္႔တဲ့သူေဌးသားလုလင္ပ်ဳိတစ္ဦးရဲ႕အသြင္အျပင္ ဖန္ဆင္းၿပီး အဲဒီ အိမ္ေထာင္သည္အမ်ဳိးသမီးဆီသြားကာ အမ်ဳိးသမီးကို သူနဲ႔သာ ဆက္လက္ေပါင္းသင္းဖုိ႔နဲ႔ သူနဲ႔ေပါင္းသင္း သြားပါက ရာသက္ပန္ ပူပင္စရာမရွိ ခ်စ္ခ်စ္ခင္ခင္နဲ႔ ခ်မ္းခ်မ္းသာသာ ဂုဏ္သေရရွိရွိ လူေလာကအလယ္မွာ တင့္တင့္တယ္တယ္ ေနႏုိင္မွာျဖစ္တဲ့အေၾကာင္း၊ လက္ရွိလင္ဟာ ဘာမွ်အသုံးမက်၊ သင္ ႏွမကို ဒီလုိျပစ္ ျပစ္ခါခါ လ်စ္လ်ဴရႈထားတာေတြ႔ရလုိ႔ မၾကည့္ႏုိင္ေၾကာင္း၊ အခုပဲ ဆက္ဆံေပါင္းသင္းဖုိ႔ မိမိအလုိကုိ လုိက္ ေလ်ာေစလုိေၾကာင္းနဲ႔ ေခ်ာ့ေမာ့လွည့္ျဖား ေျပာဆုိတယ္။
          ဒါေပမယ့္ အိမ္ေထာင္သည္အမ်ဳိးသမီးကေတာ့ နည္းနည္းကေလးမွ် ဣေျႏၵမပ်က္ဘဲ ကၽြန္မဟာ လင္ရွိမယားျဖစ္တယ္၊ တျခားဘယ္ေယာက်္ားနဲ႔မွ ဆက္ဆံေပါင္းသင္းဖုိ႔ အလုိမရွိပါ။ ကၽြန္မရဲ႕လင္ေယာ က်္ားမွာလဲ ဥစၥာပစၥည္း ဆင္းရဲေပမယ့္ သူေတာ္ေကာင္းတုိ႔ရဲ႕သေဘာအရဆုိလွ်င္ ဆင္းရဲသူ အသုံးမက်လုိ႔ မဆုိသာပါ၊ ဘာေၾကာင့္လဲဆုိေတာ့ ကၽြန္မတုိ႔လင္မယားမွာ သုံးမကုန္ဆုံးႏုိင္တဲ့ဥစၥာရွိပါတယ္၊ အဲဒီဥစၥာဟာ သာ ကၽြန္မအဖုိ႔ အထူးႏွစ္သက္ျမတ္ႏုိးတဲ့၊ သူတစ္ပါးတုိ႔လဲ မခုိးႏုိင္တဲ့ ကိုယ္နဲ႔မေကြမကြာ ဘယ္သြားသြား ၀န္မေလး မပင္ပန္းဘဲ သယ္ေဆာင္သြားႏုိင္ၿပီး ခ်မ္းခ်မ္းသာသာ အိမ္ေထာင္မႈကို အစဥ္စိုျပည္ႏုိင္ေစတဲ့ ဥစၥာစစ္ ဥစၥာမွန္ ျဖစ္တယ္လုိ႔ျပန္ေျပာတယ္။ အဲဒီဥစၥာဟာ ဘယ္ဥစၥာလဲ၊ ဘယ္မွာထားသလဲ၊ ျပပါလုိ႔ေျပာတဲ့ အခါ အိမ္ေထာင္သည္အမ်ဳိးသမီးက အဲဒီလုိဥစၥာမ်ဳိးဟာ ကိုယ္စိတ္သႏၱာန္မွာသာ ထားသိုစၿမဲျဖစ္လုိ႔ မျပႏုိင္ ပါလုိ႔ ျပန္ေျပာလုိက္တယ္။ နတ္မင္းဟာ အမ်ဳိးမ်ဳိး လွည့္ပတ္လုိ႔ မရတဲ့အဆုံး ျပန္သြားတယ္။
          ေနာက္တစ္ေန႔ ညေနအခ်ိန္မွာ နတ္မင္းဟာ ေနာက္တစ္ခါ လူသားလုလင္တစ္ဦးလုိ ဖန္ဆင္းၿပီး အဲဒီသူဆင္းရဲလင္မယားအိမ္ သြားျပန္တယ္။ အိမ္ရွင္လင္မယားႏွစ္ေယာက္စလုံးကလဲ ဧည့္သည္ကို ညစာ ၾကည္ၾကည္ျဖဴျဖဴနဲ႔ ဧည့္ခံေကၽြးေမြးတယ္။ ညအိပ္ခ်ိန္တန္လုိ႔ အိပ္ခန္းတစ္ခုမွာ အိပ္ရာေနရာ ျပင္ဆင္ေပး တဲ့အခါ သူတစ္ဦးတည္း မအိပ္၀ံ့ဘူးဆုိလုိ႔ လင္မယားႏွစ္ဦးရဲ႕အိပ္ခန္းထဲကို ေျပာင္းေပးၿပီး သီးျခားတစ္ ဘက္မွာ အတူအိပ္ေစတယ္။ လင္မယားႏွစ္ေယာက္က တစ္ဘက္မွာ အတူအိပ္တယ္။ ညဥ့္နက္လာတဲ့အခါ တစ္ေယာက္တည္းခြဲၿပီး မအိပ္၀ံ့ေၾကာင္းေျပာလုိ႔ အိမ္ရွင္ေယာက်္ားနဲ႔အိပ္ရာခ်င္းလဲလွယ္ၿပီးအိပ္ရတယ္။ သန္းေကာင္ခ်ိန္ ေရာက္တဲ့အခါ အိမ္ရွင္မကို ေဆာ့သေယာင္၊ ေခ်ာ့သေယာင္၊ ကစားသေယာင္ျပဳလုိ႔ လင္ ျဖစ္သူက အသံကို ၾကားေနရတယ္။ ထၿပီး ထင္းေခ်ာင္းနဲ႔ ရိုက္သတ္ပစ္လုိက္ရ ေကာင္းမလားလုိ႔ေတာင္ စိတ္ကူးမိတယ္။ ဒါေပမယ့္ လူႀကီးမ်ား ဆုံးမတဲ့စကားပုံအရ(ဆပ္ကပ္ပ်င္က်န္ငင္း၊ ေဆာင္းကန္ပ်န္က်န္း ခမ္း)(ဆယ္ခါသည္းခံလွ်င္ ေငြတုံးျဖစ္၊ အခါႏွစ္ဆယ္သည္းခံလွ်င္ ေရႊတုံးျဖစ္)ဆုိတဲ့စကားကို သတိရလုိ႔ သည္းခံႏုိင္ေလ အဖုိးတန္ေလ ေကာင္းေလျဖစ္တယ္လုိ႔ ဆင္ျခင္သတိရၿပီး ၿငိမ္ေနလုိက္တယ္။ အဲဒီေနာက္ ဧည့္သည္က တစ္ဆင့္တက္ၿပီး သူ႔ဇနီးသည္ကို ေစာ္ကားက်ဴးလြန္ေနသလုိ အသံၾကားရျပန္တယ္။ (စင္စစ္ မွာ ဇနီးသည္ဟာ ေအးေအးခ်မ္းခ်မ္းနဲ႔ ေဘးအႏၱရာယ္ မျဖစ္ဘဲ အိပ္ေပ်ာ္ေနတယ္)ဒါေပမယ့္ နတ္ရဲ႕တန္ခိုး က ဇနီးသည္ကို လုံး၀မထိေပမယ့္ ထိပါးသလုိအသံနဲ႔ အမူအရာမ်ားကိုသာ လင္ေယာက်္ားအိမ္ရွင္ျဖစ္သူကို ၾကားသိေစတာျဖစ္တယ္။
          အဲ့ဒီအခ်ိန္မွာပဲ ဓားနဲ႔တစ္ခ်က္တည္း ခုတ္သတ္လုိက္ရ ေကာင္းမလားလုိ႔ ေဒါသထြက္လာျပန္တယ္ ဒါေပမယ့္ သူ ခႏၱီတရားပ်က္သြားမွာကို စိုးတာကတစ္ေၾကာင္း၊ သည္းခံျခင္းရဲ႕အက်ဳိးေက်းဇူးမ်ားကို သတိ ရတာကတစ္ေၾကာင္းေၾကာင့္ သည္းခံႏုိင္ေလ ေကာင္းေလဆုိတဲ့စကားပုံကို ႏွလုံးသြင္းၿပီး ဘာပဲျဖစ္ျဖစ္ ျဖစ္ ခ်င္သလုိ ျဖစ္ပါေစေတာ့လုိ႔ ဆင္ျခင္ေန ဥေပကၡာျပဳ လ်စ္လ်ဴရႈေနတုန္း အိပ္ေပ်ာ္သြားတယ္။
          နတ္ဟာ အဲဒီလင္မယား အိပ္ေပ်ာ္သြားၾကမွန္းသိလုိ႔ သူအိပ္ေနတဲ့ေနရာမွာ သူ႔ကိုယ္နဲ႔တူမွ်တဲ့ပမာ ဏရွိၿပီး အခ်ိန္ပိႆာ တစ္ေထာင္ခန္႔ရွိတဲ့ေရႊတုံးႀကီးတစ္တုံးကို ထားေပးၿပီး "သင္တုိ႔လင္မယားဟာ ေရွးလူ ႀကီးသူမမ်ား အမိအဖသူေတာ္ျမတ္မ်ားရဲ႕အဆုံးအမကို မ်က္ကြယ္ မ်က္ျမင္မွာ အလြန္ဆင္းရဲခံၿပီး မေဖာက္ မျပန္ လုိက္နာက်င့္သုံးၾကတာကို ကၽြႏု္ပ္နယ္ေစာင့္နတ္ႀကီး ကိုယ္တုိင္ကုိယ္က် စမ္းသပ္စုံစမ္းသိရွိခဲ့ရၿပီ။ ဒါေၾကာင့္ ကၽြႏု္ပ္ဟာ မေကာင္းသူကိုပယ္၊ ေကာင္းသူကိုယ္ကယ္ဖုိ႔ ၀တၱရားရွိတဲ့အတုိင္း သင္တုိ႔လင္မယား ရဲ႕အိမ္ေထာင္ေရး ၿငိဳျငင္ဆင္းရဲပင္ပန္းျခင္းမွ ကယ္တင္မစရမယ္ျဖစ္တာေၾကာင့္ ဒီေရႊတုံးကို သင္တုိ႔အလုိ က် သုံးစြဲအသက္ေမြး၀မ္းေက်ာင္းႏုိင္ဖုိ႔ သင္တုိ႔ကို ေပးအပ္ပါတယ္"လုိ႔ စာတမ္းတစ္ေစာင္ပါ ေရးသားထားခဲ့ ၿပီး သူ႔ဗိမာန္သို႔ျပန္သြားတယ္။
          မုိးလင္းလုိ႔ ဧည့္သည္ကို ထမင္းေကၽြးဖို႔ ႏႈိးၾကည့္တဲ့အခါ ဧည့္သည္မရွိေတာ့ဘဲ ေစာင့္ျခံဳထားတဲ့ ၀ါ ၀ါ၀င္း၀င္းနဲ႔လူသဏၭာန္ ေရႊတုံးႀကီးနဲ႔စာတစ္ေစာင္ကို ေတြ႔ရလုိ႔ အလြန္အမင္းအံ့ၾသသြားၿပီး ညက အျဖစ္အ ပ်က္မ်ားကို လင္မယားႏွစ္ေယာက္ ေမးၾကေျပာၾကတယ္။ အဲဒီအခ်ိန္ကစၿပီး အခ်င္းခ်င္းပိုမုိအခ်စ္တုိးၾက ကာ ရာသက္ပန္ ကိုယ္က်င့္မပ်က္ သူေတာ္ေကာင္းတရားတုိ႔ကို လက္မလြတ္ဘဲ ျမတ္ျမတ္ႏုိးႏုိး ၾကင္ၾကင္ နာနာနဲ႔ ေနထုိင္သြားၾကတယ္။

Shan Poem (꨿)


ေလးစားထုိက္တန္သူ . . .

ကြ်န္ေတာ္ စကားနဲနဲ.ေျပာခ်င္ပါတယ္။ကြ်န္ေတာ္ ဗမာျပည္ေက်ာင္းဆယ္တန္းေအာင္ေတာ. တကၠသိုလ္
တက္ဖုိ. လမ္းစသစ္ဖြင္.လာပါတယ္။ဆယ္တန္းေတာ. ရွမ္းျပည္နယ္ေျမာက္ပိုင္း ျပင္ဦးလြင္(ေခၚ)ေမျမိဳ. (ေခၚ) ပန္အူလုံမွာေအာင္ျမင္ခဲ.ပါသည္။အဲအခ်ိန္တကၠသိုလ္ကို ရွမ္းျပည္နယ္ေျမာက္ပိုင္းကိုေျပာင္းေရႊ.သြာ
းျပီး ႏွစ္ႏွစ္တက္ျဖစ္ခဲ.ပါတယ္။ရန္ကုန္ျမိဳ.ကိုျပန္လဲ ေျပာင္းလာပါတယ္ အဲအခ်ိန္ရန္ကုန္္မွာ ပညာေလ.လာ
ဆည္းပူးခဲ.ျပီး ေနာက္ဆုံးႏွစ္ ဒဂုံတကၠသုိလ္ေက်ာင္းမွာ ေျပာင္းျပီးျပန္လာတက္ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။အဲအခ်ိန္ေက်ာ
င္းမွာ တုိင္းရင္းသားေပါင္းစုံရွိပါတယ္ ခပ္မ်ားမ်ားေတာ. ဗမာလူမ်ိဳးမ်ားတာေပါ.။တစ္ေန.ေတာ. ေက်ာင္းသြ
ားတာ သူငယ္ခ်င္းတစ္ေယာက္က ေမးတယ္ ဗမာလူမ်ိဳးေပါ.ေနာ္ ဘယ္ကေျပာင္းလာသလဲ လို.ေမးေတာ.
ကြ်န္ေတာ္က ရွမ္းျပည္နယ္ဖက္ကေနေျပာင္းလာတာပါလို.ေျပာေတာ. သူကဘာျပန္ေျပာသလဲလို.ေမးေတ
ာ. ရွမ္းျပည္နယ္မွာဆုိ ရင္ SSA ေတာင္ပိုင္းေခါင္းေဆာင္ ဦးရြက္စစ္ကိုသိသလားလို.ေမးတယ္။အဲအခ်ိန္မွာ
ကြ်န္ေတာ္ ခ်က္ခ်င္းပဲ သိလိုက္ရတယ္ ေအာ္ ကြ်န္ေတာ္တုိ. စ၀္ရြက္စစ္က ရန္ကုန္သူရန္ကုန္သားေတြေတ
ာင္သိျကတယ္ဆုိတာ အရမ္းျသအံသြားတယ္ ဘာျဖစ္လို.လဲလို. သူ.ကိုျပန္ေမးေတာ.ကြ်န္ေတာ္.သူငယ္ခ်
င္းကျပန္ေျပာလိုက္တယ္ ငါကတဲ. ဗမာလူမ်ိဳးစစ္စစ္ပါ ဒါေပမဲ. Mr. ရြက္စစ္ကို ျကိုက္တယ္တဲ.။ပာုတ္ပါတ
ယ္လို. ဗမာျပည္လူသားပဲ သူ.ကိုသိျကတယ္ဆုိတာ အရမ္း စိတ္ခ်မ္းသာသြားတာပဲ ဘာျဖစ္လို.လဲဆုိေတာ
. ကြ်န္ေတာ္တုိ. ရွမ္းျပည္နယ္ေတာ္လွန္ေရးေခါင္းေဆာင္တစ္ေယာက္နာမည္သူတုိ.သိတယ္ဆုိတာ အရမ္း
Surprise ျဖစ္မိ.သြားတာေပါ.။အဲဒါနဲ. ကြ်န္ေတာ္ေက်ာင္းျပီးေတာ. အေမရိကန္သြားဖုိ. သံရုံးမွာသြားေျဖေ
တာ. တစ္ခ်ိဳ. သံရုံးသမားတုိ. လူျကီးတုိ. (ႏုိင္ငံျခားသား) ကြ်န္ေတာ္.ကိုေနာက္ထပ္ေမးျကည္.တယ္။စိုင္း
ဆုိေတာ. ရွမ္းလူမ်ိဳးေနမွာေပါ.ေနာ္ ရွမ္းစကားတတ္လားလို. ကြ်န္ေတာ္.ကိုေမးတယ္ ကြ်န္ေတာ္လဲ တတ္တာေပါ.လို.  ကြ်န္ေတာ္ အေဖလဲရွမ္းအေမလဲရွမ္း ရွမ္းစစ္စစ္ပဲလို.ေျပာလိုက္ေတာ. သူတုိ.စိတ္ထဲ
တစ္ခု၀င္သြားလိုက္တယ္ဒီေကာင္ကရွမ္းေသြးအျပည္.ရွိတယ္ဆုိတာသိသြားေတာ. ကြ်န္ေတာ.္ကိုေနာက္
ထပ္ေမးျပန္ေရာ Do you know U Yawt Sat Army ? ပာား ပာား ကြ်န္ေတာ္လဲ ရီလိုက္ေရာ သိတာေပါ.
လို.လူေတာ.မျမင္ဖူးဘူး နာမည္ပဲျကားဖူးတာလို.ေျပာလိုက္ေတာ. သူက ေအာပာုတ္လားလို.ျပန္ေျပာေရာ
ကြ်န္ေတာ္က ဘာျဖစ္လို. အဲအေျကာင္းေျပာျပေနသလဲဆုိတာ ကို္ယ္.ေခါင္းေဆာင္တစ္ဦးပာာ ႏုိင္ငံျခားသ
ားမက ျပည္ပ ႏဳိင္ငံကသူ.ကိုသိတယ္ဆုိတာ ကိုယ္အျမတ္တႏုိး ခ်စ္ခင္ေလးစားလာတဲ. ေခါင္းေဆာင္ေက
ာင္းတစ္ေယာက္အေျကာင္းသိတယ္ဆုိတာ စိတ္ခ်င္းတူသြားေတာ. အရမ္း Euphoria ျဖစ္သြားတာေပါ.ေန
ာ္။ရွမ္းလူမ်ိဳးမွန္ရင္ စ၀္ရြက္ဆစ္ကို သိျကမွာ ရွမ္းျပည္ပါမကပါဘူး ျပည္ေထာင္စုျကီးႏုိင္ငံသားမ်ားအားလုံး
သိျကတယ္ဆုိတာ ဒီေန.အထိပဲ။
 ထုိအတူပဲ ကြ်န္ေတာ္ အဂၤလိပ္ေက်ာင္း ILBC တက္တုန္းကလဲ ေမးတဲ.လူဆုိတာအမ်ားျကီးပဲ။ဗမာျပည္မွာ
ေဒၚေအာင္ဆန္းစုျကည္ကိုေလးစားခံရသလို ရွမ္းျပည္နယ္မွာလဲ စ၀္ရြက္ဆစ္ပာာ ေလးစားထုိက္တန္တဲ.သူ
ပဲ။ခြန္ဆာေခတ္တုန္းက SSA ဆုိတာ ရွမ္းျပည္နယ္ကိုသူတုိ.တကယ္ဒီေထာင္ဖုိ. မရွိပါဘူး စီးပြားေရးလုပ္
လိုက္နဲ. မုိက္မဲမူပဲ ျပိဳင္ဆုိင္ျကတာ စစ္တပ္ဖြဲ.စည္းပုံ Construction လဲမေကာင္းဘူး။ရွမ္းစစ္သား ရြာထဲ၀င္
တာနဲ. ခ်က္ခ်င္းပဲ ရြာပ်က္ ရြာဆုတ္သြားတာ အဲတုန္းက လူသားေတာင္ျပိဳင္ျပီးစားျကတာ အဲတုန္းက MTA
ဘာျဖစ္လို.လဲဆုိေတာ. ေခါင္းေဆာင္ပုိုင္းမေကာင္းလို.ေပါ.။ေခါင္းေဆာင္ပိုင္းမေကာင္းမွေတာ. ေအာက္ေျခ
တပ္သားေတြလဲ လုပ္ခ်င္သလိုလုပ္ ႏုိင္ငံေရးကို စီးပြားေရးအျဖစ္ျပန္ေျပာင္း။လက္နက္ကိုင္ျပီး ရည္မွန္းခ်
က္မရွိလို. အဲလိုျဖစ္သြားတာ ေနာက္ဆုံးခြန္ဆာေသသြားေတာင္မွ ဘာေရာဂၤါနဲ.ေသသြားမွန္းမသိဘူး။အခု
ေခတ္ SSArmy ဆုိတာ ျပည္သူလူထုကို နံပါတ္တစ္ပဲ ကြ်န္ေတာ္က လူမ်ိဳးျကည္.ျပီးေျပာတာမပာုတ္ပါဘူး။
ေသြးစကားေျပာသလဲမပာုတ္ပါဘူး။အခုေခတ္ နဲ. ပာုိတုန္းကေခတ္မတူဘူး ဘာျဖစ္လို.လဲသိလား ေခါင္းေ
ဆာင္ Leader ေကာင္းလို.ေပါ.။ကိုယ္.အမ်ိဳးသားေခါင္းေဆာင္ပီသတယ္ဆုိတာ ကြ်န္ေတာ္အခုထိျမင္ေတြ.
ေနရတာေတာ. နံပါတ္တစ္ စ၀္ရြက္ဆစ္ပဲ ႏွစ္ေပါင္းေျခာက္ဆယ္အတြင္းမွာ တစ္ခါမွ Peace and Cease
Fire ဘယ္ေတာ.မွမလုပ္ခဲ.ဘူး။ျငိမ္းခ်မ္းေရး အရသာသိတာလြန္သြားေတာ. ေနာက္ဆုံးျကည္.လိုက္ေလ
စိန္ေက်ာ. အဖြဲ. ျပည္သူ.စစ္ အဖြဲ.ျဖစ္သြားတာ အဲဒါသူတုိ.က လက္နက္ကိုင္ျပီး ျပည္သူလူထုစီက ပိုက္ဆံ
ေတာင္း ျပည္သူလူထုအတြက္ ေကာင္းတာတစ္ခုမွ မပာုတ္ဘူးေနာက္ဆုံး သူတုိ.ပဲ တုိက္နဲ. ကားနဲ. ရည္မွ
န္းခ်က္မရွိေတာ.ဘူး ေပ်ာက္သြားျပီ ၀မ္းပာုိင္း ေတာင္မွ ျပန္ထလာျပီး Revolution လုပ္ရဲ.သာပဲ။အဲဒါလဲ
ဂုဏ္ယူရမွာ မဆုံးပါဘူး။ေနာက္တစ္ခု ကြ်န္ေတာ္ ILBC ေက်ာင္းတက္တုန္းက ဆရာကကြ်န္ေတာ္.ကိုေမး
တယ္ အဲဆရာက ကရင္လူမ်ိဳး မင္း ေဒၚစုနဲ. ဦးရြက္စစ္ ဘယ္သူ.ကို ပိုျပီးေတာ.  Prefer ျဖစ္သလဲလို.ေမး
ေတာ. ကြ်န္ေတာ္က ကြ်န္ေတာ္တုိ.ရွမ္းလူမ်ိဳး အမ်ိဳးသားေခါင္းေဆာင္ ျကီး စ၀္ရြက္စစ္ကိုပဲေရြးမွာေပါ.။အဲ
ခ်ိန္သူကဘာျပန္ေျပာသလဲဆုိေတာ. မင္းမဆုိးဘူး မင္းမွန္တယ္တဲ. သူကဘာျပန္ေျပာသလဲလို. ကြ်န္ေတာ္
နားေထာင္ျကည္.ေတာ. ပာုတ္တယ္ မင္းေျပာတာမွန္တယ္ကြာ ေဒၚစု ဆုိတဲ. ပုဂၢဳိလ္ ကသူမဲႏုိင္ဖုိ. Vote
ပဲတုိင္းရင္းသားကိုသိတာ သူအလိုရွိမွ တုိင္းရင္းသားဆုိတာ ရွိတာတဲ. ကခ်င္စစ္မွာ သူဘာမွ၀င္မေျပာဘူး
အဲေျကာင္. သူ.ကိုမျကိုက္ဘူး Discrimination လုပ္တယ္။အင္ ပာုတ္တယ္သူေျပာတာလဲမွန္တယ္။သူလဲ
ေနာက္ပိုင္း ဦးရြက္စစ္အေျကာင္းေမးတယ္ ျပီးေတာ. သူတုိ.ကရင္ေခါင္းေဆာင္အေျကာင္းျပန္ေျပာျပတယ္
အင္ကြ်န္ေတာ္လဲ ေနာက္ပိုင္း ေခါင္းထဲ၀င္လာေတာ.တယ္။ဒီလိုပါပဲေနာ္ တုိင္းျပည္တစ္ျပည္မွာအျကည္ညိဳ
ေလးစားတဲ.သူ ႏဳိင္ငံတုိင္းရွိျကတာပဲေနာ္လို. ေခါင္းထဲ၀င္လာတယ္။ကြ်န္ေတာ္ေတာ. စ၀္ရြက္စစ္ကိုအရမ္း
ျကိုက္တယ္ မ်ိဳးခ်စ္စိတ္ဓာတ္လဲ ပီသတယ္ စိတ္သေဘာထားလဲ အရမ္းေကာင္းတယ္။လက္ေအာက္ငယ္
တပ္သားေတြကို ေအာ္ေငါက္ တာမရွိဘူး။ Fairer ပဲသူက အဲေျကာင္း ကြ်န္ေတာ္တုိ. ရွမ္းေခါင္းေဆာင္ စ၀္
ရြက္ဆစ္ကို မျမတ္ႏုိးသူ ဘယ္သူမွ မရွိပါဘူးလို. ကြ်န္ေတာင္ထင္ပါတယ္ သူသည္ ကြ်န္ေတာ္တုိ. ေနာက္
တက္လာမယ္. လူငယ္မ်ား ရွမ္းလူမ်ိဳးမ်ားအတြက္ စံျပ ျဖစ္သြားပါျပီ။ေလးစားထုိက္တန္သူကို ေလးစားရမွာ
ေတာ. ျပည္သူလူထု တာ၀န္ပါပဲ မနာလိုသူ(ဗမာအစိုးရ) ေတာ.ျကိုက္မွာေတာ.မပာုတ္ပါဘူး။ကြ်န္ေတာ္ အ
ေတြးထဲ စိတ္ထဲသည္ စ၀္ရြက္ဆစ္သည္ ကြ်န္ေတာ္.အတြက္ အျမတ္ဆုံး တန္ဖုိးအရွိဆုံးပုဂၢိဳလ္ တစ္ဦးပါပဲ
ရွမ္းေဆာင္းေခါင္အမ်ားစုသည္ ပုိက္ဆံရွိ ျမိဳ.ထဲ တုိက္ေတြကားေတြ ပိုင္ေတာ. မစြန္.လြတ္ႏုိင္ဘူး ေနာက္
ဆုံးလက္နက္ခ် မခ်ရင္ ျပည္သူ.စစ္လုပ္ အဲဒါသည္ ျပည္သူလူထုအတြက္ေရာ ရွမ္းျပည္နယ္အေပၚေတြပါ
သစၥာေဖာက္သမားေတြ ရွမ္းေျမေပၚျကီး ရွမ္းေျမကိုေန ရွမ္းေရကိုေသာက္ျပီး မ်ိဳးရုိးခ်စ္စိတ္မရွိပဲနဲ. ေခါင္း
ေဆာင္တစ္ဦးလုပ္တာ မမုိက္ပါဘူး။ ထမင္ ပဲ၀တ္ခိုင္းလိုက္ရင္အေကာင္းဆုံးပဲ ျပည္သူလုူထု အေပၚ တပ္
အေပၚမွာ သစၥာမရွိျကတဲ.လူေတြ။ဒါေျကာင္.ရွမ္းျပည္နယ္ထဲက ျပည္သူ.စစ္မ်ား လက္နက္ခ် ေခါင္းေဆာင္
မ်ားအားလုံး စ၀္ရြက္ဆစ္ လိုမ်ိဳးစိတ္ ေမြးျကပါ ျပည္သူလူထုအေပၚပဲ ပုိက္ဆံေကာက္စားျပီး ကိုယ္.မိန္းမ ကိုယ္.အတြက္ပဲ မသုံးမျကည္.ပါနဲ. အမ်ားအတြက္ လုပ္ေပးပါ လက္နက္ဆုိတာ ပစ္မွ က်ည္ထြက္တာ မပစ္ရင္ က်ည္မထြက္ဘူး အဲေျကာင္း ႏုိင္ငံေရး လက္နက္ကိုင္တုိက္ပြဲ၀င္တာ လက္နက္ဆုိတာ ျပည္သူလူ
ထုကိုသတ္ဖုိ. ပိုက္ဆံေကာက္ေတာင္းျပီး ျပည္သူအတြက္ မေကာင္းတာေတြ လုပ္ဖုိ.မပာုတ္ပါဘူး။ျဖစ္ႏဳိင္
ရင္ ရွမ္းျပည္နယ္ေတာင္ပိုင္း RCSS/SSA ေခါင္းေဆာင္ စ၀္ရြက္ဆစ္ ကိုအတုယူျကပါ ႏုိင္ငံအေပၚေကာင္းရ
င္ ေလးစားထုိက္တန္ရမယ္ ျပည္သူလဲ ခ်စ္ခင္တယ္ အဲေျကာင္း စ၀္ရြက္ဆစ္ လိုမ်ိဳး အတုယူျကပါလို. ျပည္
သူ.စစ္မ်ား လက္နက္ခ် သမားမ်ားအားလုံး ကိုကြ်န္ေတာ္ ေျပာခ်င္ပါသည္ အားလုံးပဲ မိုင္ဆြန္ခ။

တꨰမ္ꨳ/သိူဝ္ꨟꨀ္ꨵ မူိင္း

ဗိုလ္ေန၀င္း လက္စေဖ်ာက္ သုတ္သင္တာ ခံလိုက္ရတဲ. သီေပါရွမ္းဘုရင္

သီေပါၿမိဳ႕လုုိ႔လူသိမ်ားတဲ့ ေျမာက္ပုုိင္းသွ်မ္းျပည္နယ္ရဲ႕ ေမာသွ်မ္းေတာင္တန္းမ်ား ပတ္လည္၀န္းရံ အလွဆင္ထား သဖြယ္ နံေဘးက တစိမ့္စိမ့္ တလိမ့္လိမ့္နဲ႔ ဒုုတၻ၀တီျမစ္ ကေလးတစ္စင္းက ပတ္ခ်ာ လည့္ကာ စီးဆင္းေနၿပီး သာယာလြမ္းေမာ ဘယ္ေကာင္းတဲ့ ေမာသွ်မ္းလူမ်ဳိးတုုိ႔ရဲ သမုုိင္းအထင္ကရၿမိဳ႔ ေလးတၿမိဳ႕ပါ ဒီသီေပါၿမိဳ႕ ...ေလးဟာ ျမန္မာ့သမုုိင္း တေလွ်ာက္မွာ ေနရယူလွ်က္ ရွိေနပါတယ္ သီေပါၿမိဳ႕ေလးဟာ ေမာကုုိး ျပည္ေထာင္ မွာ ပါ၀င္ခဲ့သလုုိ႔ ေရွးယခင္ ၿမိဳ႕တည္ၿပီးခ်ိန္မွ စ၍ သွ်မ္းေစာ္ဘြား အဆက္ဆက္ ကေန အဆင့္ဆင့္ အုုပ္ခ်ဳပ္လာခဲ့တဲ့ၿမိဳ႕ေလးလည္းျဖစ္ပါတယ္။

သီေပါ ၿမိဳ႕ေလးေပၚေပါက္ လာရတဲ့အေၾကာင္းကလည္း သွ်မ္းလူမ်ဳိးတုုိ႔၏ လန္႔ေက်ာက္ႏုုိင္ငံေတာ္ (ယခုုတရုုတ္ျပည္) ကုုိ သွ်မ္းဘုုရင္ခြန္လူဖုုန္း အုုပ္ခ်ဳပ္စုုိးေနခ်ိန္မွာ ယခုုသီေပါနယ္မွာ မိန္းတိမ္းေခၚ ဆုုိတဲ့မင္းဆက္ကုုိ သွ်မ္းေတ ြက စတင္တည္ ေထာင္တဲ့အခ်ိန္ျဖစ္ပါတယ္ တိမ္းေခၚမင္းဟာ ခြန္းလူး၊ ခြန္လႈိင္းဆုုိတဲ့ သားေတာ္ ႏွစ္ပါးကုုိသာဖြားျမင္ခဲ့ၿပီး ေနာက္ပုုိင္းမွာ မင္းဆက္ျပတ္သြားခဲ့ပါသည္။

ထုုိအခ်ိန္ တိမ္းေခၚတုုိင္းျပည္ႀကီးသည္ မၿငိမ္မသက္ျဖစ္ရာက အမွတ္ႀကီးေလးဦးက ေလးနယ္စီခြဲၿပီး အုုပ္ခ်ဳပ္ခဲ့ရာကုုိ သွ်မ္းတုုိ႔က စီေကာ့လုုိ႕ေခၚပါတယ္ သီဆုုိတာက သွ်မ္းလုုိ ေလး ေကာ့ဆုုိတာ လူအေရအတြက္ လူေလးေယာက္ အုုပ္ခ်ဳပ္လုုိ႔ ဆီေကာ့ လုုိ႔ေခၚဆုုိတာ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္ .. ဒါေၾကာင့္ စီေကာ့ စီေကာ့လုုိ႔ ေခၚဆုုိရာက ေနာက္ပုုိင္း ဆီေပါက္ သုုိ႔ေျပာင္းလည္းလာပါတယ္ ဆီဆုုိတာက ေလး
ေပါက္ဆုုိတာက ရပ္ကြက္ ဒီလုုိနဲ႔ ရပ္ကြက္ေလးခုု ဆီေပါက္လုုိ႔ ေခၚပါတယ္ အဲ့ဒီဆီေပါက္ ကေနၿပီးေတာ့ ဆီေပါ့ ဆုုိၿပီးေတာ့ အသြင္ကူးေျပာင္း လာရာမွ ေနာက္ဆုုံးမွာ သီေပါ ရယ္လုုိ႔ေခၚဆုုိခဲ့ၾကပါသည္။(မယ္ခူးေခးရွဲန္)

တဖန္ ကုုန္းေဘာင္ေခတ္ ျမန္မာ့ရာဇာ၀င္မွာေတာ ့ သီေပါၿမိဳ႕ကုုိ အုုန္းေဘာင္လုုိ႔ေခၚ ဆုုိေရးမွတ္ခဲ့ၾကၿပီး အုုန္းေဘာင္သီေပါလုုိ႔ ေခၚဆုုိၾကျပန္ပါတယ္AD - 1534 အင္း၀ေနျပည္ေတာ္ကုုိ မုုိးညွင္းဘုရင္ စ၀္လုုံႏွင့္သား ၀င္ေရာက္သိမ္းပုုိက္ကာ သားျဖစ္သူ သုုိဟန္ဘြားကုုိ မင္းအျဖစ္ထားရာက ျပည္ၿမိဳ႔ စား မင္းႀကီးရန္ေနာင္ႏွင္ ့အတူ အုုပ္ခ်ဳပ္ေစခဲ့ပါတယ္။ AD- 1555 အေရာက္ မွာေတာ့ သုုိုုဟန္ဘြားကုုိ မင္းႀကီးရန္ေႏွာင္ လုုပ္ႀကံသတ္ျဖတ္ၿပီး သီေပါၿမိဳ႕ကုုိအပုုိင္စားတဲ့ သီေပါေစာ္ဘြား အုုန္းေဘာင္ခြန္မင္း ကုုိ နန္းတင္ၾကတယ္လုုိ႔ ျမန္မာ့မွန္နန္းက ဆုုိပါတယ္ အုုန္းေဘာင္သီေပါ လုုိ႔ေရးတခါ မွတ္ၾကျပန္ပါတယ္။

အုုန္းေဘာင္ဆုုိတာကေတာ့ သွ်မ္းလုုိ အြန္ပြန္းလုုိ႔ေခၚပါတယ္ အြန္ပြန္းဆုုိတာက လယ္ေတြကုုိ ေရသြင္းဖုုိ႔ နမၼတူျမစ္ကေန ေရသြယ္ယူကာ ျပန္လည္ျဖန္႔ေ၀တဲ့ ေရလြဲေျမာင္းအေသးေလးေတြကုုိ ဆုုိလုုိပါသည္။ သီေပါၿမိဳ႕သည္ တခ်ိန္က ဆန္ေရစပါး ေပါၾကြယ္၀ေသာ ေနရာျဖစ္သလုုိ ေရလြဲဆည္ေတြ အမ်ားအျပားႏွင့္ လယ္ယာစုုိက္ပ်ဳိး အုုပ္ခ်ဳပ္ေသာ ေစာ္ဘြားျဖစ္တာေၾကာင့္ သွ်မ္းတုုိ႔က အြန္ပြန္း စ၀္ဖွ လုုိ႔ေခၚပါတယ္ ဒါကုုိ ဗမာလူမ်ဳိးမ်ားက အုုန္းေဘာင္ ေစာ္ဘြား ေခၚဆုုိေရးမွတ္ခဲ့ၾကပါသည္။ ဒီလုုိနဲ႔ေခတ္အဆက္ဆက္ သွ်မ္းေစာ္ဘြားမ်ား အုုပ္ခ်ဳပ္လာခဲ့ရာ ...

AD- 1866 - Dec 13 သီေပါေစာ္ဘြားႀကီး ခြန္ၾကာထြန္း၏ သားေတာ္ ကေမၻာဇရ႒ မဟာ၀ံသ သိရီပ၀ရ သုဓမၼရာဇာ ဘြဲ႔ရ (၈၅) ဆက္ေျမာက္ ေစာ္ဘြားႀကီး အျဖစ္ကုုိ စ၀္ၾကာခိုင္ (ခ) စ၀္ခြန္ဆိုင္ သီေပါ ေစာ္ဘြား အျဖစ္ကုုိခံယူေလသည္။ 1889 ခုုႏွစ္မွာ ( C. I.E = Companion of the Order of tha Indian Empire ) ဆုုိကုုိရရွိခဲ့သည္။

AD- 1895 ခုုႏွစ္မွာ ေစာ္ဘြားႀကီး စ၀္ၾကာခုုိင္သည္ ေၾကးခ်ိန္ - ၄၇၇၉ ပိႆာ-၁၅ က်ပ္သား ၊ ေငြခ်ိန္ - ၂၆ ပိႆာ ၊ ေရႊခ်ိန္ - ၂ ပိႆာ-၂၅ က်ပ္- ၂ ပဲ ၊ စရိတ္ေတာ္ (ေငြဒဂၤါး) ၉၅၅၈ - က်ပ္- ၆ ပဲ ၊တို႔ျဖင့္ သြန္းေလာင္းပူေဇာ္ခဲ့ပါသည္။ ၁၂၆၄ - ခုႏွစ္တြင္ မဟာျမတ္မုနိ မကိုဋ္ေတာ္ကို တင္လွဴခဲ့ပါသည္။
မႏ ၱေလးၿမိဳ႕ မဟာျမတ္မုနိဘုရားႀကီးႏွင့္ ေနာင္ေတာ္ ညီေတာ္အျဖစ္ အနီးစပ္ဆုံး ပုံစံတူကူးယူ၍ ေျမတိုင္းအမတ္ႀကီး ဦးႀကိဳင္ကို ပန္းတဥ္း၀န္ခန္႔ကာ ဂႏၶကုဋိတိုက္ေတာ္၊ ျပာသာဒ္ စုလစ္မြန္းခၽြန္၊ အာရုံခံတန္ေဆာင္း တို႔ျဖင့္ ၁၂၅၇-ခု ၀ါဆိုလျပည့္ေက်ာ္ (၅) ရက္ေန႔တြင္ ေဆာက္လုပ္ၿပီးစီးခဲ့ပါသည္။

AD- 1924 ခုုႏွစ္ ၁၂၈၆ - ခု ကဆုန္လဆန္း (၆) ရက္ေန႔တြင္ တန္ေဆာင္းေတာ္ မီးေလာင္ကၽြမ္း၍ ရုပ္ပြားေတာ္ျမတ္မွာ အနည္းငယ္မီးခခဲ့ပါသည္။ သီေပါ အုန္းေဘာင္ ေလးၿမိဳ႕ဂိုဏ္းခ်ဳပ္ဆရာေတာ္ ဦးက၀ိ မေထရ္ျမတ္ႏွင့္ အရီးေတာ္ထိပ္ေခါင္တင္ ႀကီးမွဴးလ်က္ ျပည္သူျပည္သားမ်ား ေကာင္းမႈျဖင့္ ၁၂၈၉ - ခု ျပာသိုလျပည့္ေန႔တြင္ ျပန္လည္ျပဳျပင္ ၿပီးစီးခဲ့ပါသည္။

စ၀္ခ်ယ္ (1906 - 1928) စ၀္ခ်ယ္ကုုိ 1872 ခုုႏွစ္တြင္ဖြားျမင္ၿပီး သီေပါမင္း၏ ေခၚသီေပါမင္း၏ ေခၚ ဆုုိခ်က္အရ မန္းေလး ေရႊနန္းေတာ္တြင္ သြားေရာက္ေနထုုိင္ခဲ့သည္။ 1913 Apri (၈၆)ဆက္ေျမာက္ ကေမၻာဇရ႒ မဟာ၀ံသ မဟာရာဇာ ဘြဲ႕ခံ ေစာ္ဘြားႀကီး ဆာေစာခ်ယ္ အျဖစ္သုုိ႔ေရာက္ရွိသည္။
AD- 1923 ေစာ္ဘြားႀကီး စ၀္ခ်ယ္ ၏ေမြးေန႔ပြဲတြင္ ( C. I.E = Companion of the Order of tha Indian Empire ) ဆုုိကုုိရရွိခဲ့သည္။

စ၀္အုုံၾကာ(1928-1938) စ၀္ခ်ယ္ ႏွင့္ မဟာေဒ၀ီ စ၀္သီရိမာလာတုုိ႔၏ တဦးတည္းေသာ သား ( Rugby School ) (Brasennoso College Oxford ) 1917 BA 1922 (Ma) 1917 - 1919 (South Eastrn Agricultural )
1919 Dec မွာ ( Honorary Extea Assistant Commission for administrativ training မေကြးၿမဳိ႕မွာ တက္ေရာက္ခဲ့ပါသည္။ 1922 ခုုႏွစ္ စ၀္သုုႏၵ ၏သမီးေတာ္ မဟာေဒ၀ီ စ၀္လိ ႏွင့္ထိမ္းျမားသည္။

သီးေပါ ေစာ္ဘြား စ၀္ၾကာဆုိင္သည္သီေပါ ေစာ္ဘြားႀကီး စ၀္အုံၾကာႏွင္ ့ မဟာ ေဒ၀ီ တုိ႔မွ 1924 ဖြားျမင္ေတာ္မႈၿပီး ေမြးခ်င္းမ်ား ျဖစ္ၾကေသာ စ၀္ၾကာဆုန္၊ စ၀္မမ၊ စ၀္ၾကည္စု၊ စ၀္ယဥ္ႏုတုိ႔၏ ေမာင္အငယ္ဆုံး ျဖစ္သည္။1932 – 1935ေမၿမိဳ႕ ဂ်ဳိးဇက္ေက်ာင္းတြင္္ (St.Joseph) ပညာ သင္ၾကား၍1935 – 1941သွ်မ္း ခ်ိ႕စ္ေက်ာင္းတြင္၎( Shan Chief` School)။ 1941 ခႏွစ္တြင္ အေျခခံပညာ အထက္တန္းေမာင္ျမင္၍ အိႏိၵယႏုိင္ငံ တာဂ်ီလိန္ (St. Paul)၎ ဆက္လက္၍( Senior Cambridge)။ 1947 (January) သီေပါေစာ္ဘြားျဖစ္ကုိ ခံယူေလသည္။ 1949 (October) ထုိေနာက္ အေမရိကန္(Colorado) ပညာသင္ၾကား။ 1953 (Mining Engineer)။ 1953 (March) (Austria) (Inge)အင္ဂ်ီးႏွင့္ေတြ႕ဆုံ 1954 (January) စ၀္ၾကာဆုိင္သည္ အင္ဂ်ီး(Inge)ႏွင့္အတူ သီေပါ သုိ႔ျပန္လည္ ရာက္ရွိလာသည္။ အနာဂတ္ သွ်မ္းျပည္တြက္ ဆားရရွိရန္ ေဘာႀကိဳေဒသမွ ဆားထြက္ရွိသည့္ ေဒသတုိ႔ ကုိယ္တုိင္ ကြင္းဆင္း ေလ့လါ သုေတသန မ်ား ျပဳလုပ္ခဲ့သည္။

ေဘာ္ႀကဳိဘုရားပြဲတြင္ သွ်မ္းအမ်ဳိးသားမ်ားသည္ အေလါင္းအစား ခုံမင္းႏွစ္သက္သည္ကုိ ႀကိဳက္ႏွစ္သက္ျခင္းမရွိ၍ ေနာင္အႏွစ္ပြဲေတာ္ က်င္းပခ်ိန္တြင္ ေဘာ္ႀကဳိ ဘုရားပြဲေတာ္တြင္း အေလါင္းစားမ်ား ျပဳလုပ္ျခင္းမ်ား ပိတ္ပင္သည္ဟု သိရွိပါသည္။ ေစာ္ဘြားႀကီး စ၀္ၾကာဆုိင္သည္ သွ်မ္းအမ်ဳိးသားမ်ား ခ်စ္ခင္ေလးျခင္း ယုံၾကည္ကုိးစားခံရေသာ ေစာ္ဘြားတဦးျဖစ္သည္

1948 ခုႏွစ္ မုိင္းရႈးေစာ္ဘြား စ၀္မန္ဖ၏ ေနအိမ္တြင္ ေစာ္ဘြားႀကီးမ်ား တံခါးပိတ္အစည္းေ၀း၌ ပထမ အခ်က္ျဖစ္သည့္ သွ်မ္းျပည္ျပည္သူ႕ အစုိးရသုိ႔ အာဏာစြန္႕လႊတ္ေရးဆုိသည္ကုိ အားလုံးလုိလုိ လက္ခံခဲ့ၾကသည္။ အဘယ္ေၾကာင့္ဆုိေသာ္ အိႏိၵယႏုိင္ငံ မဟာရာဂ်ာ ( ) ေစာ္ဘြားမ်ားသည္ ပင္၎တုိ႔၏ အာဏာကုိ အစုိးရထံသုိ႔ ေပးအပ္စြန္႔လႊတ္လုိက္ၿပီျဖစ္ ေသာေၾကာင့္ပင္။ ကမၻာႏွင့္ အ၀ွမ္းထူးျခားစြာ ျဖစ္ပ်က္ ေျပာင္းလဲေနေသာ ႏုိင္ငံေရး အေျခအေနကုိ မလြန္ဆန္ႏုိင္ေတာ့ဟုလည္းေ ၾကာင္းျပဳၾကသည္။

ဒုတိယ- အခ်က္ျဖစ္သည့္ ေလ်ာ္ေၾကးေငြယူရန္ မယူရန္ကုိ မႈ အျငင္းအခုံျဖစ္ခဲ့ၾက၏ ျပည္ထဲေရး၀န္ႀကီး စ၀္မန္ဖက ျဖစ္ႏုိင္လွ်င္ ေလ်ာ္ေၾကးေငြကို မယူရန္တင္ျပခဲ့ပါသည္။ ေနာင္ေသာအခါတြင္ သွ်မ္းျပည္၏ ျပည္သူလူထု သားစဥ္ေျမးဆက္တုိ႔ အေနျဖင့္ သွ်မ္းျပည္ႀကီးကုိ သွ်မ္းေစာ္ဘြားမ်ားက ေငြေၾကးျဖင့္ လဲလွယ္၍ ေရာင္းစားသြားခဲ့ၾကသည္ဟူေသာ သမုိင္းအမည္း စက္ႀကီးစြန္းထင္းက်န္ရစ္ ေနခဲ့မည္ ျဖစ္ေၾကာင္း ရွင္းလင္း တင္ျပခဲ့ေပသည္။ ထုိအဆုိတင္သြင္းခ်က္ကုိ သီေပါ ေစာ္ဘြား စ၀္ၾကာဆုိင္ႏွင့္ အခ်ဳိ႕ေသာ ေစာ္ဘြားငယ္ (နယ္ငယ္ေသာေစာ္ဘြားမ်ားကုိဆုိလုိသည္) မ်ားတဦး ႏွစ္ဦးခန္႔ကသာ ေထာက္ခံခဲ့ၾကပါသည္။

သီးေပါ ေစာ္ဘြား စ၀္ၾကာဆုိင္ႏွင့္ အင္ဂီ် တျဖစ္လည္း မဟာေဒဝီ စဝ္သုစႏီၵ သွ်မ္းမင္းသမီးေလး သူတို႕ ၂ေယာက္ရဲ႕ ဇတ္လမ္းေလးက.. တကယ့္ကို ပံုျပင္ဆန္ ၿပီး ၾကည္နူးဖြယ္..ေၾကကြဲဖြယ္ေတြ အတိနဲ႕ပါ။ အခ်ိန္က..၁၉၅၁ ခုႏွစ္။ ေကာ္လိုရာဒို ျပည္နယ္ရဲ႕ ဒန္ဗာ ဆိုတဲ့ၿမိဳ႕ေလးက Colorado School of Mines မွာ.. ေက်ာင္းလာတက္ၾကတဲ့..အာရွတိုက္သား မိုင္းအင္ဂ်င္နီယာ ေက်ာင္းသားေလး နဲ႕ exchange student အေနနဲ႕ ခဏ ေရာက္ေနတဲ့ ၾသစႀကီးယား နိုင္ငံသူေလး တို႕ ခ်စ္ခင္စံုမက္သြားၾကတဲ့.. သာမာန္ အခ်စ္ဇတ္လမ္းေလး တခုပါပဲ။

အင္ဂ်ီ ကုိ ၁၉၃၂ခုႏွစ္၊ ေဖေဖၚဝါရီလ ၂၃ရက္ေန႔တြင္ ၾသစႀတီးယားႏိုင္ငံ၊ Kärntenေဒသတြင္ ေမြးဖြါးခဲ့သည္။ ၆ႏွစ္သမီး အရြယ္တြင္ နာဇီက်ဴးေက်ာ္မႈကို ႀကံဳေတြ႔ခဲ့ရျပီး၊ သူမ၏ အေမကိုယ္တိုင္ နာဇီမ်ား၏ ဖမ္းဆီးမႈကို သံုးႀကိမ္ခံခဲ့ ရဖူးသည္။ ဒုတိယကမာၻစစ္အျပီး ၾသစႀတီးယားႏိုင္ငံမွာ မ်ားစြာ ခက္ခဲဆင္းရဲ လာေသာေၾကာင့္ အေမရိကန္တြင္ ပညာဆက္လက္ သင္ယူရန္ ဆံုးျဖတ္ခဲ့ျပီး ၁၉၅၁ခုႏွစ္တြင္ Fulbright ပညာသင္ဆုရရွိသူ ပထမဆံုးေသာ ၾသစႀတီးယားလူမ်ိဳး ျဖစ္လာခဲ့သည္။ အေမရိကန္ႏိုင္ငံ ေကာ္လိုရာဒို၊ အမ်ိဳးသမီး ေကာလိပ္တြင္ ပညာဆည္းပူးခဲ့သည္။ အဲဒီတုန္းက..ေက်ာင္းအုပ္ႀကီးကလြဲလို႕.. ဒီ အင္ဂ်င္နီယာ ေက်ာင္းသားေလးဟာ အာရွတိုက္က.. ဘုရင္ငယ္ေလး တပါး ဆိုတာ ဘယ္သူမွ မသိေစေအာင္..သူကိုယ္တိုင္က..သို၀ွက္ထားခဲ့တယ္တဲ့။ ေကာ္လိုရာဒိုတြင္ ပညာဆည္းပူးေနစဥ္ Colorado school of Mining မွ မိုင္းတူးအင္ဂ်င္နီယာ ေက်ာင္းသား သီေပါေစာ္ဘြား စဝ္ၾကာဆိုင္ႏွင့္ ဖူးစာဆံုခဲ့ၾကသည္။

၁၉၅၃-ခုႏွစ္တြင္ ေကာ္လိုရာဒိုရွိ သူငယ္ခ်င္းတစ္ဦးအိမ္တြင္ပင္ လက္ထပ္ခဲ့ၾကသည္။ သူတို႕ ၂ေယာက္ လက္ထပ္ၿပီးေတာ့.. အင္ဂ်ီက..ေယာင္ေနာက္ဆံထံုးပါ.. လိုက္လာခဲ့တယ္။ သူတို႕ သေဘာၤႀကီး ရန္ကုန္ ဆိပ္ကမ္းကို ကပ္ကာနီးလို႕ .. အလံေတြ ပု၀ါေတြ တရမ္းရမ္း..ဗံုေမာင္းသံ တညံညံ နဲ႕ ဆိပ္ကမ္းျပည့္ ႀကိဳေနၾကတဲ့ ရွမ္းလူမ်ိဳးေတြကို ျမင္ေတာ့မွ…. “There is something I have to tell you, my dear.” လို႕ ေျပာလိုက္တဲ့..ခင္ပြန္းသည္ရဲ႕ စကားအဆံုးမွာ… သူမဘ၀ဟာ အရွင္လတ္လတ္ကေနၿပီး.. မင္းသမီးတပါး ျဖစ္သြားခဲ့ၿပီး…ၿပိဳင္တည္းမွာပဲ..ရွဳပ္ေထြးလာနိုင္မဲ့ သူ႕ အနာဂါတ္ကိုလည္း အာရံုရမိလိုက္တယ္..လို႕.. အင္ဂီ်က လြမ္းဆြတ္ ထားပါတယ္။ သီေပါသို႔ ေရာက္ရွိၿပီး လအတန္ၾကာတြင္ တရားဝင္ရိုးရာ လက္ထပ္အခမ္းအနားကို က်င္းပခဲ့ၿပီး၊ ေဗဒင္နကၡတ္အရ မဟာေဒဝီ စဝ္သုစႏီၵ ဟူေသာ ရွမ္းအမည္ကို ရရွိခဲ့သည္။ သူတို႕ ေမာင္ႏွံ သီေပါ ေဟာ္နန္းကို ေရာက္တဲ့ အခ်ိန္ကစၿပီး..အဲဒီ နယ္တခြင္မွာ ျပဳျပင္ေျပာင္းလဲ ေရးေတြ ျဖစ္လာ ေတာ့တယ္။ စပ္ၾကာဆိုင္က..သူကိုယ္တိုင္ လူျဖစ္ခဲ့တဲ့ ေျမရွင္ပေဒသရာဇ္ စနစ္ႀကီး ကို ေျပာင္းလဲဖို႕ ႀကိဳးစားရင္း..

သူ႕ရဲ႕ ရွမ္းအမ်ိဳးသားေတြကို ဒီမုိကေရစီ စနစ္ဆီ လမ္းခင္းေပးခဲ့တယ္။ ေျမယာေတြ ကို ျပည္သူ႕ဆီ ျပန္ေရာက္ေအာင္ လုပ္ေပးခဲ့တယ္။ သူသင္ခဲ့တဲ့ ပညာေတြနဲ႕..ဒီေဒသ ရဲ႕ အသက္ေသြးေၾကာ..တြင္းထြက္ သယံဇာတေတြ ကို ေအာင္ေအာင္ျမင္ျမင္ ထုတ္ေဖာ္နိုင္ခဲ့တယ္။

ၾသစေၾတလ် နိုင္ငံက..ဘူမိေဗဒ ပညာရွင္ေတြ ငွားၿပီး တိုင္းတာ ရွာေဖြေရး ေတြကို အေကာင္းဆံုးအဆင့္ နဲ႕လုပ္တယ္..။ နိုင္ငံျခားက..မ်ိဳးစိတ္အသစ္ေတြ ၀ယ္ယူၿပီး.. စိုက္ပ်ိဳးေမြးျမဴေရးေတြကို..စက္မူ နည္းပညာေတြနဲ႕ ျမွင့္တင္ေပးခဲ့တယ္။ စဝ္သုစႏၵီသည္ အခ်ိန္အနည္းငယ္အတြင္း ဗမာ၊ ရွမ္း ဘာသာစကားမ်ားကို သင္ယူ တတ္ေျမာက္လာခဲ့ျပီး မိမိကိုယ္ကို ရွမ္းလူမ်ိဳး တစ္ဦးအျဖစ္ စတင္ခံယူလာခဲ့သည္သာကမ၊ သီေပါေဒသခံမ်ားကလည္း သူမအား ရွမ္းလူမ်ိဳး မဟာေဒဝီ တစ္ဦးအျဖစ္ လက္ခံလာၾကသည္။

ထို႔အျပင္ စဝ္သုေဒဝီသည္ ခင္ပြန္းျဖစ္သူႏွင့္ တြဲဖက္ကာ သီေပါေဒသ ဖြံၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္ေရး လုပ္ငန္းမ်ားတြင္ ပါဝင္ကူညီခဲ့ၿပီး သားဖြားေဆးခန္းႏွင့္ ဗမာ၊ အဂၤလိပ္၊ ရွမ္း ဘာသာသံုးမ်ိဳးျဖင့္ သင္ၾကားေသာ စာသင္ေက်ာင္း ကိုတည္ေထာင္ရင္း ကိုယ္တိုင္ လုပ္အားေပးခဲ့သည္။ မာယာရီ ႏွင့္ ကိႏၷရီ အမည္ရွိ သမီးႏွစ္ဦး ထြန္းကားခဲ့သည္။ အင္ဂ်ီ ကိုယ္တိုင္လည္း စာသင္ေက်ာင္းေတြနဲ႕ အမ်ိဳးသမီးက႑ ေတြကို ကိုယ္ဖိ ရင္ဖိ ေဆာင္ရြက္ခဲ့တယ္။ ဗမာလံုျခည္နဲ႕ ဆံထံုးနဲ႕ ေနထုိင္ ဆင္ယင္ခဲ့တဲ့ အင္ဂ်ီ တျဖစ္လဲ သုစႏၵီမင္းသမီးကို အားလံုးက.. အေလးထား ေလးစားခင္မင္ၾကတယ္။ အဲဒီ ရပ္ရြာေတြမွာဆို.. သူတို႕ ေမာင္ႏွံပံုကို ဘုရားစင္မွာတင္ၿပီး ကိုးကြယ္တာမ်ိဳးေတာင္ ရွိခဲ့တယ္တဲ့။

ဒါေပမဲ့.. လူေကာင္းလူေတာ္ ေတြကို ၀မ္းပမ္းတသာ ႀကိဳဆို လက္ခံေလ့ မရိွတဲ့..ဒီေျမ..ဒီေရ..ဒီထံုး.. ဒီအမုန္းေတြနဲ႕ အတူ ၁၉၆၂ ခု ႏွစ္ မတ္လ ရဲ႕ နိုင္ငံေရး မုန္တိုင္း ထဲမွာပဲ..ရန္ကုန္ၿမိဳ႕လႊတ္ေတာ္ညီလာခံ က အျပန္ ဘယ္မွာ ေပ်ာက္ဆံုး သြားမွန္း မသိတဲ့ သီေပါ ေစာ္ဘြား စပ္ၾကာဆိုင္ ကို ယေန႕ထက္ထိ ဘယ္သူမွ ျပန္မေတြ႕ၾကရေတာ့ပါဘူး။

အဲဒီ အခ်ိန္မွာ လူမမယ္ သမီး ၂ေယာက္နဲ႕ က်န္ခဲ့တဲ့ အင္ဂ်ီ ကို သီေပါ ေဟာ္မွာပဲ.. အေစာင့္အၾကပ္ ထူထပ္စြာ နဲ႕ အက်ယ္ခ်ဳပ္ ထားခဲ့တယ္။ ဘာကိုမွ မေၾကာက္တတ္ခဲ့တဲ့ အင္ဂ်ီ ကလည္း.. သူ႕ဆက္သြယ္နိုင္သမွ် အရာရွိ စစ္အာဏာပိုင္ မွန္သမွ် ထံ လိုက္လံ စံုစမ္းခဲ့ေပမဲ့.. “I am writing this secretly. I am being locked up in the army lockup at Ba Htoo Myo at Lawksawk… Miss you all. Conditions here are not clean. Hope to see you soon. Cheer up yourself! I am still OK. Love, Sao Kya Seng.” ဆိုတဲ႕ လွ်ိဳ႕၀ွက္စြာ ေရာက္လာတဲ့. စာေလးတေစာင္က လြဲလို႕.. ဘာသဲလြန္စ မွ မရခဲ့ေတာ့ဘူး။
၂ ႏွစ္ေလာက္.. အားမေလွ်ာ့တမ္း စံုစမ္း ေနခဲ့ရင္း.. ေနာက္ဆံုးမွာေတာ့. .သူ႕အတြက္ အႏၱရယ္ေတြ ၀ိုင္းေနတဲ့..တစိမ္းျပင္ျပင္ ျဖစ္လာတဲ့ အေျခအေနေတြေၾကာင့္.. ၾသစႀကီးယားသံရံုးရဲ႕ အကူအညီနဲ႕ သမီးေလး ၂ ေယာက္အတြက္ နိုင္ငံကူးလတ္မွတ္ အတု လုပ္ၿပီး ျမန္မာနိင္ငံထဲက..ခိုးထြက္ လာခဲ့ေတာ့တာ..ကေန႕အထိ..အခု စာအုပ္ကို ေရးသားျဖစ္တဲ့ အထိေပါ့။

သီေပါေစာ္ဘြားေစာ၀္ၾကာဆိုင္ဟာ.. ၁၉၆၂ခုႏွစ္ စစ္အာဏာ အသိမ္းမွာ တျခားေသာ.. တိုးတက္ ထက္ျမတ္တဲ့ တိုင္းရင္းသား ေခါင္းေဆာင္ မ်ားနည္းတူ.. လက္စေဖ်ာက္ ခံခဲ့ရၿပီးေနာက္ အင္ဂ်ီ တျဖစ္လဲ သုစႏၵီမင္းသမီးေလး ဟာသမီးငယ္ ႏွစ္ေယာက္ႏွစ္အတူ ျမန္မာျပည္မွ ထြက္ခြါလာခဲ့ရပါသည္။ ၾသစၾကီးယားနိုင္ငံ ဗီယင္နာျမိဳ႕Schloss Laudon ဆိုတဲ့ ဇိမ္ခံ ေဟာ္တယ္ႀကီး တခုရဲ႕ ဧည့္ခန္းထဲကို ေနာက္ဆံုးေသာ ေမွ်ာ္လင့္ခ်က္ေတြ.. နာက်ည္းမူေတြ နဲ႕ အတူ သမီးေလး ၂ေယာက္ကို လက္ဆြဲျပီး ေဟာ္တည္ေရွ႕ မ်က္ခင္းစိမ္းစိမ္းကုိ ျဖတ္၍ အထဲသုိ႔ ၀င္လာတဲ့.. အမ်ိဳးသမီးငယ္ တေယာက္ အဲဒီ အမ်ိဳးသမီးကေတာ့..တခ်ိန္တုန္းက.. ရပ္ရြာလူထု က..ခ်စ္ခင္ေလးစားခဲ့ၾကတဲ့.. ရွမ္းမင္းသမီးတပါး ျဖစ္ခဲ့တဲ့ ..ၾသစႀကီးယားနိုင္ငံသူ အင္ဂ်ီ ျဖစ္ျပီး.. သူလက္ဆြဲလာတဲ့ ကေလး ၂ေယာက္ကေတာ့.. ကိႏၵရာ နဲ႕ အမရာ (ကိႏၵရီ နဲ႕ မာယာရီ) ဆိုတဲ့ ရွမ္း-ၾသစႀကီးယန္း ကျပား သမီးေလး ၂ေယာက္ပါ။ သူတို႕ ေတြ႕ဖို႕ ႀကိဳးစားခဲ့တဲ့ သူကေတာ့.. လန္ဒန္ျမိဳ႕မွာ ဇိမ္ခံ ရင္း ..ေဆးကုဖို႕ ေရာက္ေနတဲ့..ျမန္မာျပည္က..ေခါင္းေဆာင္ႀကီး ဦးေန၀င္း (ျမန္မာ့ဆုိရွယ္လစ္ လမ္းစဥ္ပါတီ ဥကၠဌ) ျဖစ္ပါသည္။ အျဖစ္အပ်က္ေတြက..ဆယ္စုႏွစ္ ၾကာေနၿပီ ျဖစ္ေပမဲ့.. အင္ဂ်ီ မွာ..သူ႕ခင္ပြန္းသည္ရဲ႕ ကံၾကမၼာ ဘယ္လို အဆံုးသပ္ခဲ့ရတယ္ ဆိုတာ..သိဖို႕အတြက္..ဇြဲမေလ်ာ့ပဲ ေတာက္ေလွ်ာက္ ႀကိဳးစားေနခဲ့တယ္။ အခုလည္း.. သတၱိေတြ အျပည့္နဲ႕ လူကိုယ္တိုင္ မ်က္ႏွာခ်င္းဆိုင္ ေမးဖို႕..သူ ေရာက္လာခဲ့ျပန္တယ္။

ဒါေပမဲ့..အခန္းထဲက..ထြက္မလာတဲ့..တာ၀န္ရွိသူၾကီးက.. သူ႕ဇနီး ေဒၚခင္ေမသန္းကို လႊတ္ၿပီး..စပ္ၾကာဆိုင္ မေသေသးပါဘူး..က်န္းက်န္းမာမာ ရွိေနပါတယ္ လို႕.. အေျဖေပးလိုက္ပါတယ္။ ဒီအေျဖ စကားက..အေျခအျမစ္မရွိ သလို ဘယ္ကိုမွ ဆက္သြားစရာလည္း မရွိေတာ့တဲ့.. ငရဲကလာတဲ့ အလိမ္အညာ လမ္းဆံုးစကားတခုသာ ျဖစ္တယ္ဆိုတာ..သူသိေပမဲ့.. အခု ထက္ထိလည္း..သူ႕ခင္ပြန္း အေလာင္း ကို မေတြ႕ခဲ့ရ။ တကယ္ေတာ့.. ငယ္ရြယ္ ထက္ျမတ္တဲ့ သီေပါ ေစာ္ဘြား စပ္ၾကာဆိုင္ ဟာ.. ၁၉၆၂ ခုႏွစ္ စစ္အာဏာ အသိမ္းမွာ တျခားေသာ.. တိုးတက္ ထက္ျမတ္တဲ့ တိုင္းရင္းသားေခါင္းေဆာင္ မ်ားနည္းတူ.. လက္စေဖ်ာက္ ခံခဲ့ရတာပါ။ ဒီစာအုပ္ကုိ ဒုတိယ အိမ္ေထာင္ျဖစ္တဲ့ ခင္ပြန္းသည္ရဲ႕ အားေပးတိုက္တြန္းမူ နဲ႕ ေရးသားထုတ္ေ၀ ခဲ့တာျဖစ္ျပီး..အလင္းေရာင္ ေပ်ာက္ကြယ္ရင္း..ေမွာင္စျပဳေနတဲ့ ဗမာျပည္ရဲ႕ ဖိႏွိပ္ကန္႕သတ္မူေတြကို ကမၻာက သိေအာင္..ေနာက္..သူ႕ခင္ပြန္းစပ္ၾကာဆိုင္ ရဲ႕ သူ႕ေျမသူ႕ေရ အေပၚ တာ၀န္ေက်ခဲ့ပံု.. နိုင္ငံေရး အျမင္က်ယ္ခဲ့ပံုေတြ..လူသားဆန္ခဲ့ပံုေတြကို မွတ္တင္းတင္ ရစ္ဖို႕ပါလို႕ ဆိုထားပါတယ္။

ဒီစာအုပ္ကို ၁၉၉၄ မွာ ဟာ၀ိုင္ယီတကၠသိုလ္ စာအုပ္တိုက္က..ပုံႏွိပ္ခဲ့ပါတယ္။ စာအုပ္ရဲ႕ အတြင္းအဖံုးမွာ အေမရိကန္မွာ အေျခခ် ေနထိုင္ေနတဲ့.. စာေရးသူ -အျငိမ္းစားေက်ာင္းဆရာမ ႀကီး အင္ဂ်ီရဲ႕ မဟာနဖူး ဆံထံုး ျမင့္ျမင့္ႀကီးနဲ႕ ဓါတ္ပံု ကို ၾကက္သေရ ရွိစြာ ျမင္ရနိုင္ပါတယ္။ Burma lifeline ဆိုတဲ့ ေဖာင္ေဒးရွင္းတခုကိုလည္း အင္ဂ်ီနဲ႕ သူ႕ဒုတိယခင္ပြန္းက မတည္ဖြဲ႕စည္းထားတယ္လို႕ သိရပါတယ္။

သီေပါ ေစာ္ဘြား စပ္ၾကာဆိုင္ နဲ႔ၾသစၾကီးယားသူ အင္ဂ်ီ တို႔ရဲ႕ေၾကကြဲဖြယ္ဇာတ္လမ္း။

စာအုပ္ရဲ႕ အဖြင့္မွာ- (ၾသစၾကီးယားနိုင္ငံ ဗီယင္နာျမိဳ႕Schloss Laudon) ဆိုတဲ့ ဇိမ္ခံ ေဟာ္တယ္ၾကီး တခုရဲ႕ ဧည့္ခန္းထဲကို ေနာက္ဆံုးေသာ ေမွ်ာ္လင့္ခ်က္ေတြ.. နာက်ည္းမူေတြ နဲ႕ အတူ သမီးေလး ၂ေယာက္ကို လက္ဆြဲျပီး ၀င္လာတဲ့.. အမ်ိဳးသမီးငယ္ တေယာက္ နဲ႕ စထားပါတယ္။ အဲဒီ အမ်ိဳးသမီးကေတာ့..တခ်ိန္တုန္းက.. ရပ္ရြာလူထု က..ခ်စ္ခင္ေလးစားခဲ့ၾကတဲ့.. ရွမ္းမင္းသမီးတပါး ျဖစ္ခဲ့တဲ့ ..ၾသစၾကီးယားနိုင္ငံသူ အင္ဂ်ီ ျဖစ္ျပီး.. သူလက္ဆြဲလာတဲ့ ကေလး ၂ေယာက္ကေတာ့.. (ကိႏၵရီ နဲ႕ မာယာရီ) ဆိုတဲ့ ရွမ္း-ၾသစၾကီးယန္း ကျပား သမီးေလး ၂ေယာက္ပါ။ သူတို႕ ေတြ႕ဖို႕ ၾကိဳးစားခဲ့တဲ့ သူကေတာ့.. ဥေရာပါမွာ ဇိမ္ခံ ရင္း ..ေဆးကုဖို႕ ေရာက္ေနတဲ့..ျမန္မာျပည္က..ေခါင္းေဆာင္ၾကီး ဦးေန၀င္း ျဖစ္ပါသတဲ့။

အျဖစ္အပ်က္ေတြက.. နွစ္ေလး ငါး ဆယ္ႏွစ္ ၾကာေနျပီ ျဖစ္ေပမဲ့.. အင္ဂ်ီ မွာ..သူ႕ခင္ပြန္းသည္ရဲ႕ ကံၾကမၼာ ဘယ္လို အဆံုးသပ္ခဲ့ရတယ္ ဆိုတာ..သိဖို႕အတြက္..ဇြဲမေလ်ာ့ပဲ ေတာက္ေလွ်ာက္ ၾကိဳးစားေနခဲ့တယ္။ အခုလည္း.. သတၱိေတြ အျပည့္နဲ႕ လူကိုယ္တိုင္ မ်က္ႏွာခ်င္းဆိုင္ ေမးဖို႕..သူ ေရာက္လာခဲ့ျပန္တယ္။ ဒါေပမဲ့..အခန္းထဲက..ထြက္မလာတဲ့..တာ၀န္ရွိသူၾကီးက.. သူ႕ဇနီး ေဒၚခင္ေမသန္းကို လႊတ္ျပီး..စပ္ၾကာဆိုင္ မေသေသးပါဘူး..က်န္းက်န္းမာမာ ရွိေနပါတယ္ လို႕.. အေျဖေပးလိုက္သတဲ့။

 ဒီအေျဖ စကားက..အေျခအျမစ္မရွိ သလို ဘယ္ကိုမွ ဆက္သြားစရာလည္း မရွိေတာ့တဲ့.. ငရဲကလာတဲ့ အလိမ္အညာ လမ္းဆံုးစကားတခုသာ ျဖစ္တယ္ဆိုတာ..သူသိေပမဲ့.. အခု ထက္ထိလည္း..သူ႕ခင္ပြန္း အေလာင္း ကို မေတြ႕ခဲ့ရ။

တကယ္ေတာ့.. ငယ္ရြယ္ ထက္ျမတ္တဲ့ သီေပါ ေစာ္ဘြား စပ္ၾကာဆိုင္ ဟာ.. ၁၉၆၂ ခုႏွစ္ စစ္အာဏာ အသိမ္းမွာ တျခားေသာ.. တိုးတက္ ထက္ျမတ္တဲ့ တိုင္းရင္းသားေခါင္းေဆာင္ မ်ားနည္းတူ.. လက္စေဖ်ာက္ ခံခဲ့ရတာပါ။


သူတို႕ ၂ေယာက္ရဲ႕ ဇတ္လမ္းေလးက.. တကယ့္ကို ပံုျပင္ဆန္ ျပီး ၾကည္နူးဖြယ္..ေၾကကြဲဖြယ္ေတြ အတိနဲ႕ပါ။

အခ်ိန္က..၁၉၅၁ ခုႏွစ္။ ေကာ္လိုရာဒို ျပည္နယ္ရဲ႕ ဒန္ဗာ ဆိုတဲ့ျမိဳ႕ေလးက Colorado School of Mines မွာ.. ေက်ာင္းလာတက္ၾကတဲ့..အာရွတိုက္သား မိုင္းအင္ဂ်င္နီယာ ေက်ာင္းသားေလး နဲ႕ exchange student အေနနဲ႕ ခဏ ေရာက္ေနတဲ့ ၾသစၾကီးယား နိုင္ငံသူေလး တို႕ ခ်စ္ခင္စံုမက္သြားၾကတဲ့.. သာမာန္ အခ်စ္ဇတ္လမ္းေလး တခုပါပဲ။ အဲဒီတုန္းက..ေက်ာင္းအုပ္ၾကီးကလြဲလို႕.. ဒီ အင္ဂ်င္နီယာ ေက်ာင္းသားေလးဟာ အာရွတိုက္က.. ဘုရင္ငယ္ေလး တပါး ဆိုတာ ဘယ္သူမွ မသိေစေအာင္..သူကိုယ္တိုင္က..သို၀ွက္ထားခဲ့တယ္တဲ့။
သူတို႕ ၂ေယာက္ လက္ထပ္ျပီးေတာ့.. အင္ဂ်ီက..ေယာင္ေနာက္ဆံထံုးပါ.. လိုက္လာခဲ့တယ္။ သူတို႕ သေဘာၤၾကီး ရန္ကုန္ ဆိပ္ကမ္းကို ကပ္ကာနီးလို႕ .. အလံေတြ ပု၀ါေတြ တရမ္းရမ္း..ဗံုေမာင္းသံ တညံညံ နဲ႕ ဆိပ္ကမ္းျပည့္ ၾကိဳေနၾကတဲ့ ရွမ္းလူမ်ိဳးေတြကို ျမင္ေတာ့မွ.... "There is something I have to tell you, my dear." လို႕ ေျပာလိုက္တဲ့..ခင္ပြန္းသည္ရဲ႕ စကားအဆံုးမွာ... သူမဘ၀ဟာ အရွင္လတ္လတ္ကေနျပီး.. မင္းသမီးတပါး ျဖစ္သြားခဲ့ရျပီး....တျပိဳင္တည္းမွာပဲ..ရွဳပ္ေထြးလာနိုင္မဲ့ သူ႕ အနာဂါတ္ကိုလည္း အာရံုရမိလိုက္တယ္..လို႕.. အင္ဂီ်က လြမ္းဆြတ္ ထားပါတယ္။

သူတို႕ ေမာင္ႏွံ သီေပါ ေဟာ္နန္းကို ေရာက္တဲ့ အခ်ိန္ကစျပီး..အဲဒီ နယ္တခြင္မွာ ျပဳျပင္ေျပာင္းလဲ ေရးေတြ ျဖစ္လာေတာ့တယ္။ စပ္ၾကာဆိုင္က..သူကိုယ္တိုင္ လူျဖစ္ခဲ့တဲ့ ေျမရွင္ပေဒသရာဇ္ စနစ္ၾကီး ကို ေျပာင္းလဲဖို႕ ၾကိဳးစားရင္း..သူ႕ရဲ႕ ရွမ္းအမ်ိဳးသားေတြကို ဒီမုိကေရစီ စနစ္ဆီ လမ္းခင္းေပးခဲ့တယ္။ ေျမယာေတြ ကို ျပည္သူ႕ဆီ ျပန္ေရာက္ေအာင္ လုပ္ေပးခဲ့တယ္။ သူသင္ခဲ့တဲ့ ပညာေတြနဲ႕..ဒီေဒသ ရဲ႕ အသက္ေသြးေၾကာ..တြင္းထြက္ သယံဇာတေတြ ကို ေအာင္ေအာင္ျမင္ျမင္ ထုတ္ေဖာ္နိုင္ခဲ့တယ္။ ၾသစေၾတလ် နိုင္ငံက..ဘူမိေဗဒ ပညာရွင္ေတြ ငွားျပီး တိုင္းတာ ရွာေဖြေရး ေတြကို အေကာင္းဆံုးအဆင့္ နဲ႕လုပ္တယ္..။ နိုင္ငံျခားက..မ်ိဳးစိတ္အသစ္ေတြ ၀ယ္ယူျပီး.. စိုက္ပ်ိဳးေမြးျမဴေရးေတြကို..စက္မူ နည္းပညာေတြနဲ႕ ျမွင့္တင္ေပးခဲ့တယ္။ အင္ဂ်ီ ကိုယ္တိုင္လည္း စာသင္ေက်ာင္းေတြနဲ႕ အမ်ိဳးသမီးက႑ ေတြကို ကိုယ္ဖိ ရင္ဖိ ေဆာင္ရြက္ခဲ့တယ္။ ဗမာလံုျခည္နဲ႕ ဆံထံုးနဲ႕ ေနထုိင္ ဆင္ယင္ခဲ့တဲ့ အင္ဂ်ီ တျဖစ္လဲ သုစႏၵီမင္းသမီးကို အားလံုးက.. အေလးထား ေလးစားခင္မင္ၾကတယ္။ အဲဒီ ရပ္ရြာေတြမွာဆို.. သူတို႕ ေမာင္ႏွံပံုကို ဘုရားစင္မွာတင္ျပီး ကိုးကြယ္တာမ်ိဳးေတာင္ ရွိခဲ့တယ္တဲ့။

ဒါေပမဲ့.. လူေကာင္းလူေတာ္ ေတြကို ၀မ္းပန္းတသာ ၾကိဳဆို လက္ခံေလ့ မရိွတဲ့..ဒီေျမ..ဒီေရ..ဒီထံုး..ဒီအမုန္းေတြနဲ႕ အတူ ၁၉၆၂ ခု ႏွစ္ မတ္လ ရဲ႕ နိုင္ငံေရး မုန္တိုင္း ထဲမွာပဲ..ရန္ကုန္ျမိဳ႕လႊတ္ေတာ္ညီလာခံ က အျပန္ ဘယ္မွာ ေပ်ာက္ဆံုး သြားမွန္း မသိတဲ့ သီေပါ ေစာ္ဘြား စပ္ၾကာဆိုင္ ကို ယေန႕ထက္ထိ ဘယ္သူမွ ျပန္မေတြ႕ၾကရေတာ့ပါဘူး။

အဲဒီ အခ်ိန္မွာ လူမမယ္ သမီး ၂ေယာက္နဲ႕ က်န္ခဲ့တဲ့ အင္ဂ်ီ ကို သီေပါေဟာ္မွာပဲ..အေစာင့္အၾကပ္ ထူထပ္စြာ နဲ႕ အက်ယ္ခ်ဳပ္ ထားခဲ့တယ္။ ဘာကိုမွ မေၾကာက္တတ္ခဲ့တဲ့ အင္ဂ်ီ ကလည္း..သူ႕ဆက္သြယ္နိုင္သမွ် အရာရွိ စစ္အာဏာပိုင္ မွန္သမွ် ထံ လိုက္လံ စံုစမ္းခဲ့ေပမဲ့.. "I am writing this secretly. I am being locked up in the army lockup at Ba Htoo Myo at Lawksawk... Miss you all. Conditions here are not clean. Hope to see you soon. Cheer up yourself! I am still OK. Love, Sao Kya Seng." ဆိုတဲ႕ လွ်ိဳ႕၀ွက္စြာ ေရာက္လာတဲ့..စာေလးတေစာင္ကလြဲလို႕..ဘာသဲလြန္စ မွ မရခဲ့ေတာ့ဘူး။

၂ ႏွစ္ေလာက္..အားမေလွ်ာ့တမ္း စံုစမ္း ေနခဲ့ရင္း..ေနာက္ဆံုးမွာေတာ့..သူ႕အတြက္ အႏၱရယ္ေတြ ၀ိုင္းေနတဲ့..တစိမ္းျပင္ျပင္ ျဖစ္လာတဲ့ အေျခအေနေတြေၾကာင့္.. ၾသစၾကီးယားသံရံုးရဲ႕ အကူအညီနဲ႕ သမီးေလး ၂ ေယာက္အတြက္ နိုင္ငံကူးလတ္မွတ္ အတု လုပ္ျပီး ျမန္မာနိင္ငံထဲက..ခိုးထြက္ လာခဲ့ေတာ့တာ..ကေန႕အထိ..အခု စာအုပ္ကို ေရးသားျဖစ္တဲ့ အထိေပါ့။

ဒီစာအုပ္ကုိ ဒုတိယ အိမ္ေထာင္ျဖစ္တဲ့ ခင္ပြန္းသည္ရဲ႕ အားေပးတိုက္တြန္းမူ နဲ႕ ေရးသားထုတ္ေ၀ခဲ့တာျဖစ္ျပီး..အလင္းေရာင္ ေပ်ာက္ကြယ္ရင္း..ေမွာင္စျပဳေနတဲ့ ဗမာျပည္ရဲ႕ ဖိႏွိပ္ကန္႕သတ္မူေတြကို ကမၻာက သိေအာင္..ေနာက္..သူ႕ခင္ပြန္းစပ္ၾကာဆိုင္ ရဲ႕ သူ႕ေျမသူ႕ေရ အေပၚ တာ၀န္ေက်ခဲ့ပံု.. နိုင္ငံေရး အျမင္က်ယ္ခဲ့ပံုေတြ..လူသားဆန္ခဲ့ပံုေတြကို မွတ္တင္းတင္ ရစ္ဖို႕ပါလို႕ ဆိုထားပါတယ္။

 ဒီစာအုပ္ကို ၁၉၉၄ မွာ ဟာ၀ိုင္ယီတကၠသိုလ္ စာအုပ္တိုက္က..ပုံႏွိပ္ခဲ့ပါတယ္။ စာအုပ္ရဲ႕ အတြင္းအဖံုးမွာ အေမရိကန္မွာ အေျခခ် ေနထိုင္ေနတဲ့.. စာေရးသူ -အျငိမ္းစားေက်ာင္းဆရာမ ၾကီး အင္ဂ်ီရဲ႕ မဟာနဖူး ဆံထံုး ျမင့္ျမင့္ၾကီးနဲ႕ ဓါတ္ပံု ကို ၾကက္သေရ ရွိစြာ ျမင္ရနိုင္ပါတယ္။ Burma lifeline ဆိုတဲ့ ေဖာင္ေဒးရွင္းတခုကိုလည္း အင္ဂ်ီ နဲ႕ သူ႕ဒုတိယခင္ပြန္းက မတည္ဖြဲ႕စည္းထားတယ္လို႕ သိရပါတယ္။

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 ရွမ္း Wallpaper Computer မွာ အသုံးျပဳဖုိ.အတြက္ ေရးဆြဲေပးထားပါသည္။ကြ်န္ေတာ္တုိ. ဒီပုံ ဒီလူ
ေတြကို ခြင္.မေတာင္းပဲ သူတုိ.ပုံကိုအသုံးျပဳမိ.သည္.အတြက္ အထူးပဲေတာင္းပန္ပါသည္။ေက်းဇူးတင္ပါ

ငိꨓ္းꨅူမ္း ေꨀဳꨳတꨰမ္ꨳ Designer ꨅꨤꨯးသꨰင္ꨅꨱတ္ꨳ ေတꨵ ေတꨵ ယဝ္ꨳꨁဳꨳ မ္ꨮꨲ သုင္ꨁဳꨳ။


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